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David J. Hoffman    

USGS-Patuxent Wildlife Research Center
Beltsville Laboratory
BARC-East, Building 308
10300 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, MD 20705

Photo of David J. Hoffman

Telephone: 301-497-5712

Fax: 301-497-5624


Emeritus Research Physiologist

Primary Responsibilities:  Retired


B.S., McGill University, Montreal, Que., 1966, (Zoology major, Mathematics minor)
Ph.D., University of Maryland, 1971, (Develop. zoology/physiology major, Biochemistry minor) 

Areas of Expertise/Interest: Wildlife Toxicology; Risk Assessment; Physiology, Teratology


Author of over 150 scientific publications, including over 15 book chapters, feature articles and invited reviews, and over 90 presentations at scientific meetings, work shops and symposia.


Editor of Handbook of Ecotoxicology, 1st and 2nd editions published in 1995, 2003- a best seller for CRC Press.


 Editorial boards for scientific journals including (Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Oecologia Montana, Current Topics in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Chemistry, Current Topics in Toxicology). Adjunct Professor at the University of Maryland, Frostburg.


Received nine awards (1990-2006) from the federal government in the following categories: Special Achievement Award for Superior Service to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife, Department of Interior Honor Award for Superior Service,  National  Biological Service Performance Award, National Biological Service Scientific Achievement Award, United States Geological Survey Scientific Achievement Award United States Geological Survey STAR Award.


ISI Highly Cited Author Recognition; World’s Most Highly Cited Authors in  Ecology/ Environment from 1981-2000: Institute for Scientific Information, 2003. (


Who's Who in the World, listed for scientific recognition in environmental research, 2004-2011.

World Innovation Foundation, elected to Consulting Fellow. (two thousand worldwide selected members including approximately 80 Nobel Laureates), 2005        

Past Projects: 

Use of bioindicators of oxidative stress to monitor contaminant exposure and effects

Contaminant interactions: comparative reproductive effects of methyl mercury, bioindicators, and selenium interaction

Toxicity of biologically incorporated contaminants

Effects of mercury on aquatic birds nesting along the mid‑to lower Carson River and vicinity, Nevada

Assessing the ecological risk of mercury exposure in common loons (Gavia immer)

Toxicity of lead‑contaminated sediments to waterfowl and use of sediment amendments to reduce toxicity towards restoration

Contaminant effects on glaucous gulls in the arctic

Comparative developmental toxicity assessment of a mosquito larvicide (GB‑1111) on bird eggs

Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners to vertebrates

Natural resource damage assessment of environmental contaminants to wildlife by sediment ingestion: role of nutrition on lead‑contaminated sediments to juvenile waterfowl

Contaminant interactions and mercury in San Francisco Bay-Delta birds

Preparation of First and Second Editions of CRC Handbook of Ecotoxicology

Developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants to `neonatal' birds

Technical assistance in biomarker analyses

The effects of selenium exposure in commom eiders

Sublethal Indicators of selenium toxicosis in birds and nutritional factors

Polybrominated Diphenylethers effects on nestling American kestrels

The potential hazard, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of environmental contaminants to bird eggs through direct exposure


Selected Publications: 

Hoffman, D. J., C. A. Eagles-Smith, J. T. Ackerman, T. L. Adelsbach, and K. R. Stebbins.  2011.  Oxidative stress response of Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia) to mercury and selenium bioaccumulation in liver, kidney, and brain.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(4):920-929. abstract

Franson, J. C., D. J. Hoffman, and P. L. Flint.  2011.  Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders.  Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30(6):1479-1481.  abstract

Wayland, M., D. J. Hoffman, M. L. Mallory, R. T. Alisauskas, and K. R. Stebbins.  2010.  Evidence of weak contaminant-related oxidative stress in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Canadian arctic.  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A 73(15):1058-1073. abstract
Hoffman, D. J., C. J. Henny, E. F. Hill, R. A. Grove, J. L. Kaiser, and K. R. Stebbins.  2009.  Mercury and drought along the Lower Carson River, Nevada: III. Effects on blood and organ biochemistry and histopathology of snowy egrets and black-crowned night-herons on Lahontan Reservoir, 2002-2006.  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 72(20):1223-1241.  abstract

Franson, J. C., D. J. Hoffman, and J. A. Schmutz.  2009.  Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.  Journal of Zoology and Wildlife Medicine 40(2):321-327.   abstract

Kenow, K. P., D. J. Hoffman, R. K. Hines, M. W. Meyer, J. W. Bickham, C. W. Matson, K. R. Stebbins, P. Montagna, and A. Elfessi.  2008.  Effects of methylmercury exposure on glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage in captive-reared common loon (Gavia immer) chicks.  Environmental Pollution 156(3):732-738. abstract 

Huang, Y.-W., D. J. Hoffman, and W. H. Karasov.  2007.  Oxidative stress induced in PCB 126-exposed northern leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.  Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A 70(8):676-681.   abstract
Hoffman D.J., Heinz G.H., Audet D.J. 2006. Phosphorus amendment reduces hematological effects of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards. Archives of Environmental  Contamination and Toxicology  50(3):421-428. abstract

Hoffman D.J., Heinz G.H., Audet D.J. 2006. Phosphorus amendment reduces hepatic and renal oxidative stress of lead-contaminated sediment to mallards. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A,  69(11):1039-1053. abstract

Hoffman, D.J., Spalding, M.G., Frederick, P.C. 2005. Subchronic effects of methylmercury on plasma and organ biochemistries in great egret nestlings. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24(12):3078-3084. abstract

Douglas-Stroebel, E.K., Brewer, G.L., Hoffman, D.J. 2005. Effects of lead- contaminated sediment and nutrition on mallard duckling behavior and growth. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A, 68(2):113-128.

Fernie, K.J., G. Mayne, L. J. Shutt, D.J. Hoffman, R. J. Letcher, and K. Drouillard. 2005. Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): changes in thyroid and vitamin A homeostasis, glutathione metabolism and oxidative stress in American kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxicological Sciences  88(2):375-383. abstract

Hoffman, D.J., Albers, P.H., Melancon, M.J., Miles, A.K. 2004. Effects of the mosquito larvicide GB-1111 on bird eggs.  Environmental Pollution 127(3):353-358.  abstract

Hoffman, D.J., B.A. Rattner, G.A. Burton, Jr., and J. Cairns, Jr., Eds. 2003. Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition, Lewis Publishers, Inc., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 1-1290. abstract

Hoffman, D.J. 2002. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds. Aquatic Toxicology57(1):11-26. abstract

Hoffman, D.J., C. Marn, K. Marois, E. Sproul, M. Dunne and J. Skorupa. 2002. Sublethal effects in avocet and stilt hatchlings from selenium-contaminated sites. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(3):561-566. abstract

Henny, C. J., E. F. Hill, D. J. Hoffman, M. G. Spalding and R. A. Grove 2002. Nineteenth century mercury hazard to wading birds and cormorants of the Carson River, Nevada. Ecotoxicology11(4):213-231. abstract


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