Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Database Search:
"Pollution and Contaminants Contributing to Species Decline as Outlined in Species Recovery Plans"
Database Fields and Definitions

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Common Name: Common name of endangered or threatened species listed in recovery plan or listing package

Genus, species, subspecies, class: Scientific Taxonomic Classification

Classification: Listing classifcation of species

E -- endangered
T -- threatened
D -- delisted due to recovery

Reclassification: Species has been reclassified from the status of endangered to threatened, or has been successfully recovered and delisted from the Endangered Species List.

Listed Year: Year species was added to USFWS list of endangered and threatened species.

Recovery Plan First: Year the first recovery plan was approved.

Recovery Plan Recent: Year of the most recent approved recovery plan.

Revisions: Number of recovery plan revisions.

Status Change: Year of status reclassification

Current Status: Current population status

Declining -- species population size has declined and/or the number of threats has increased
Stable -- species population size has remained stable or number of threats hasn’t changed
Improving -- species population size has increased and/or the number of threats has decreased
Uncertain -- additional survey work required to make an accurate estimate
Captivity -- species only found in captivity
Extinct -- species believed to be extinct

Critical Habitat: Is Critical Habitat designated? Yes/No

Recovered %: Percentage of recovery objectives achieved

1 = 0-25%
2 = 26-50%
3 = 51-75%
4 = 76-100%

Action_N: Contributor to cause of decline 1 to N; summary of the action threatening a species

Source_N: Primary source of stress associated with cause of decline 1 to N

Agricultural (ex. feedlots, pastures, crop production, rangeland)
Industrial (ex. large coroporations, processing plants, paper mills, chemical manugacturers)
Municipal (urban, suburban, rurl and residential; ex. runoff from lawns and streets)
Waterway navigation (alteration of a body of water or any part of its structure or processes)

Secondary Source_N: Secondary sources associated with cause of decline 1 to N

Mining operations -- mineral extraction
Power generation -- thermal or hydroelectric power generation
Construction -- municipal and industrial facilities
Biocides -- any type of herbicide, pesticide, insecticide, fungicide, etc.
Shot Poison -- lead shot ingested
Roadways -- public, nonspecific use
Point Source pollution -- direct spills or discharges
NonPoint Source pollution -- diffuse runoff or infiltration of a pollutant
Impoundments -- dams and reservoirs
Channel modification -- flood control or nonspecific uses
Dredging -- bank alteration and drainage of waterway
Conversion -- waterway is converted for a new use
Air Pollution -- pollutants released from municipal or industrial facilities

Stressor_N: Primary stressors attributing to cause of decline 1 to N

Herbicides -- plant killing agents
Pesticides -- pest killing agents (general description)
Insecticides -- insect killing agents
Rodenticides -- rodent killing agents
Fungicides -- fungus killing agents
Molluscicides -- mollusk killing agents
Piscides -- fish killing agents
Poisons -- agents used to kill unwanted species
Predacides -- agents used to kill predators
Fertilizer runoff -- from agricultural or municipal sources
Nutrient Enrichment -- nutrients from fertilizers and runoff including Nitrogen and Phosphorous
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons -- industrial contaminants
Polychlorinated Biphenyls -- industrial contaminants
Runoff (general) -- associated with nonpoint source pollution
Spill/Discharges/Effluent (general) -- associated with point source pollution
Waste (general) -- associated with point source pollution from industrial activities
Metals -- heavy metals and metalloids (ex. lead, mercury, cadmium, etc.)
Atmospheric Deposition -- settling of emissions of materials from industries and municipalities
Hyrodologic Modifications (general) -- water and habitat is altered (ex. temperature, flow rate, etc.)

Secondary Stressor_N: Secondary stressors causing decline 1 to N

Carbamates -- insecticide/ herbicide (ex. Propham, Barbam, Carbaryl)
Tfiazines -- herbicides used in large scale crop production (ex. Atrazine, Simazine)
Chlorophenoxy/Phenoxy -- herbicides (ex. 2,4dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (aka 2,4D))
Bipyridal derivatives -- herbicides (ex. Paraquat, Diquat)
Amides -- herbicides (ex. Propanil)
Nitriles -- herbicides (ex. Dichlobenil, Ioxynil)
Organophosphates -- insecticides/pesticides (ex. Malathion, Fention, Parathion, Chlorpyrifos)
Organochlorines -- insecticides/ pesticides (ex. DDT, Chlordane, Aldrin)
Pyrethroids -- insecticides (ex. Pyrethrin, Pyrethrum, Fenvalerate)
Anticoagulants -- usually associated with rodenticides (ex. Coumadin, Warfarin)
Nitrogen -- associated with nutrient enrichment from fertilizer runoff
Phosphorus -- associated with nutrient enrichment from fertilizer runoff
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) -- industrial effluents associated with generating plants
Dioxins -- industrial effluents associated with chemical manufacturers
Oil -- associated with industrial mining runoff
Gasoline -- associated with municipal and industrial extraction and leakage
Petroleum Products -- associated with industrial mining and runoff
Waste -- point source discharge from municipal or industrial facility
Debris -- manmade debris
Metalloids -- properties of metals and nonmetals (ex. Boron, Silicon, Arsenic, Tellurium)
Halogens/Halides -- nonmetallic ions which extis as diatomic molecules with the capability of forming salts (ex. chlorine, flourine, iodine, bromine, astatine)
Lead -- metal
Zinc -- metal
Mercury -- metal
Copper -- metal
Cadmium -- metal
Selenium -- metal
Aluminum -- metal, also associated with acidification
Volatile Organic Compounds -- air pollutants released by the industrial combustion of fuel, gas, coal and from municipalites such as solid waste disposal sites (ex, methane, carbon monixide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide)
Siltation -- sediment load changes
Alkalinity -- change in basic, nitrogenous organic compounds
DO -- dissolved oxygen level (usually lowered to unsuitable level)
Water Depth changes -- level of water is increased or decreased
pH changes -- pH in water changes
Temperature alteration -- temperature regime changes
Flow regime alteration -- timing, frequency, and duration of flow changes
Salinity -- chemical makeup of salts in water changes
Turbidity change / Suspended solids -- sediments overload water system after it rains
Substrate Alterations -- changes in bed morphology or structure

Specific Contaminant_N: Specific contaminant listed as a cause of decline 1 to N

Tissue_N: Tissue contaminant reported in cause of decline 1 to N (ex.. liver, muscle, etc.)

Residue_N: Residue concentration of contaminant reported in tissue 1 to N(in ppm or pg/g, etc.)

Matrix_N: Abiotic source of exposure for cause of decline 1 to N

Sediment (bed of body of water)

Path_N: Primary pathway to tissue concentration for cause of decline 1 to N

Ingestion -- organisms intake contaminant through eating contaminated sources
Absorption -- contaminant is absorbed through cutaneous/subcutaneous parameters (amphibians)
Immersion -- associated with aquatic species that are submerged in polluted mediums
Inhalation -- associated with biocides or air pollutants which are inhaled by organisms
Multiple -- toxic effects produced by more than one pathway that listed above

Mode_N: Mode of action of cause of decline 1 to N (includes suspect or potential toxicological impacts)

· Acute Toxicity -- contaminant causes lethality or mortality (i.e. lethal dose)
· Egg Loss -- contaminant causes the destruction of eggs, resulting in lower fecundity rates
· Eggshell Thinning -- associated with organochlorine pesticides such as DDT that alters the chemical availability of certain nutrients essential in eggshell formation
· Indirect Mortality -- may or may not cause lethality in a species, but does effect the reproductive, developmental, or physiological success of an organisms in the present generation or for future generations (ex. mussels/host fish relationship, eagles ingesting lead shot killed ducks, microbenthic food sources for fish relationships)
· Multiple Effects -- more than one mode of action responsible for population decline
· Sublethal Effects -- behavioral traits are altered; fitness of an organisms is decreased; causes genetic traits to be altered (ex. loss of certain senses leading to lower ability to excape predators)
· Suitability Altered -- habitat altered in such a way that it becomes unsuitable

Exposure_N: Term of exposure to contaminant for cause of decline 1 to N

Acute -- accidental spill, catastrophic event causing short term exposure of high toxicity
Chronic -- long term exposure with lower levels of toxicity resulting in more subtle modifications

Chronology_N: Time period when cause of decline 1 to N is considered a threat to species

Past -- no longer a problem
Historic -- was a problem in the last 11-100 years previous to recovery plan creation
Recent -- was a problem in last 10 years prior to recovery plan creation
Current -- is considered a problem at the time the recovery plan was written
Future -- could potentially become a problem (after the time the recovery plan was written)

Data Source_N: Credibility of data used to attribute cause of decline 1 to N

1= supported by peerreviewed literature
2= supported by published data/documentation
3= supported by expert opinion
4= speculative, unsubstantiated

Severity_N: Severity of the contaminant attributing to cause of decline 1 to N

1= No Observed Effect
2= Potentially Adverse Effect
= AdverseEffect
4= Potentially Detrimental Effect
5= Catastrophic Effect

Notes_N: Additional information and cited references from recovery plan for cause of decline 1 to N


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