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Petroleum Crude Oil Utility Index

For natural history information of bird species, visit the Patuxent Bird Identification Infocenter page. For other species, visit the University of Michigan Animal Diversity Web

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A. Exposure Potential

1. Primary foraging technique
(Check more than one if applicable)

Dives or is submersed in water
Dabbles under water
Probes mud or stalks
Skims surface of water
Does not forage in water

2. Time spent in or on water

Nearly always
Most of the time
Half the time
Less than half the time
Seldom or never

3. Escape behavior

Swims, but sometimes dives
Flies, but sometimes swims

4. Preening or grooming behavior

Preens or grooms feathers or fur
Does not preen or groom

5. Exposure of eggs

Eggs laid in water
Eggs laid near water
Eggs laid away from water, transfer from adult likely (e.g., waterbirds)
Eggs laid away from water, transfer from adult not likely (e.g., turtles, terrestrial birds)
Does not lay eggs or does not breed in study area

6. Use of urbanized areas or shipping channels

Readily inhabits and/or forages in these areas
Occasionally utilizes these areas
Avoids these areas

B. Geographic Occurrence

1. Range

Present throughout entire study area
Present throughout more than half of study area
Present throughout about half the study area
Present throughout less than half the study area
Present in small part of study area only

2. Residency

Year-round resident (does not migrate)
Migrates within study area
Migrates beyond study area (present during breeding)
Migrates beyond study area (present during winter)
Transient (present during migration only)

C. Ease of Collection

(Take into account the season of collection)

1. Social structure

Highly colonial or gregarious
Semi-colonial or semi-gregarious

2. Accessibility of sampling unit
(Consider logistical and economic constraints)

Individuals or nests are easily accessible
Individuals or nests are moderately accessible
Individuals or nests are difficult to access

3. Ease of capture or trappability

Easy to capture or trap

4. Abundance in study area

Abundant (numerous in suitable habitat)
Common (certain to be in suitable habitat)
Uncommon (presence expected, but not a certainty)
Occasional (presence possible, but not expected)
Rare (not normally present)

5. Federal or State Management Status in Study Area
(Consult the US Fish and Wildlife Service Listings. If the species is listed,
consult the "population to which this status applies" in the species account.)

Not protected
Protected (managed population)


Substantial data
Some data
Very few data

Click button to calculate the Utility Index Scores:

Utility Index Scores (Scale = 4 - 20)


Petroleum Crude Oil Utility Score: View Rankings

Enter another species:

Ranking of Species Utility Index Scores, From Highest to Lowest

Rank Species Score

What do these scores mean?

Contact: Barnett Rattner
Last modified: 10/08/2003
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