Lead Shot Vulnerability Index

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A. Exposure Potential

1. Primary foraging technique
(Check more than one if applicable)

Dives under water, feeds off bottom
Dabbles under water, feeds off bottom
Probes below surface, long bill length (>5 cm)
Probes below surface, short bill length(<5 cm)
Does not feed in any of these manners

2. Dietary preference

Predator or scavenger of waterfowl
Predator or scavenger of other game species
Does not feed in this manner

3. Use of hunted areas

Readily inhabits and/or forages in these areas
Occasionally inhabits or forages in hunted areas
Does not generally utilize hunted areas

4. Residency

Year-round resident (does not migrate)
Migrates within study area
Migrates beyond study area (present during breeding)
Migrates beyond study area (present during winter)
Transient (present during migration only)

5. Social structure

Highly colonial or gregarious
Semi-colonial or semi-gregarious

6. Range

Present throughout entire study area
Present throughout more than half of study area
Present throughout about half the study area
Present throughout less than half the study area
Present in small part of study area only

B. Sensitivity

1. Effect of oil on waterproteining/insulation

Difficult to regain waterproteining/insulation (cormorants, diving ducks, most mammals)
Able to regain waterproteining/insulation (shorebirds, upland birds, other ducks)
Waterproteining/insulation not greatly affected (reptiles, amphibians, seals, sea lions, cetaceans)

2. Dietary preference


3. Relative body size

Small (e.g., passerines)
Medium (e.g., most waterfowl, gulls)
Large (e.g., geese, larger raptors)

C. Resilience of Population

1. Abundance in study area

Abundant (numerous in suitable habitat)
Common (certain to be in suitable habitat)
Uncommon (presence expected, but not a certainty)
Occasional (presence possible, but not expected)
Rare (not normally present)

2. Distribution outside of study area

Endemic to study area
Present outside of study area, but not abundant
Abundant outside of study area

3. Reproductive potential

Low (1-2 offspring/yr)
Moderate (3-4 offspring/yr)
High (>4 offspring/yr)

4. Age at first breeding

6+ yr
5 yr
4 yr
3 yr
1-2 yr

Click button to calculate the Vulnerability index Scores:

Vulnerability index Scores (Scale = 3.71 - 20)


Lead Shot Vulnerability Score: View Rankings

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Ranking of Species Vulnerability Index Scores, From Highest to Lowest

Rank Species Score

What do these scores mean?

URL: http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/contaminants-online/
Contact: Barnett Rattner
Last modified: 10/08/2003
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