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Sonoma Co. (CA) 2011-2016

Species Info

Species Information

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Species Alpha Code* Safe date start** Safe date end Habitat
FAMILY: Anatidae (Ducks, Geese, and Swans)
  Canada Goose  CANG3 / 20 7 / 1Nests near fresh water or brackish marshes, meadows or reservoirs. 
  Mute Swan  MUSW4 / 15 8 / 1Ponds with vegetation. 
  Wood Duck  WODU4 / 15 7 / 15In cavity or large tree near pond or slow-moving water. Use nest boxes. 
  Mandarin Duck  MNDU4 / 1 7 / 15Secluded lakes, streams and rivers; hole in tree or nestbox at Lake Solano Collinsville. 
  Gadwall  GADW5 / 1 7 / 15In tall dense vegetation, frequently on an island in a marsh or lake. 
  Mallard  MALL3 / 1 9 / 1Well concealed in dense vegetation in depression on ground, lined with duck down, usually within half mile of water. 
  Blue-winged Teal  BWTE5 / 15 7 / 15Similar to Mallard and Cinnamon Teal. 
  Cinnamon Teal  CITE4 / 15 7 / 1Dense cover 12-15 inches high near water. 
  Northern Shoveler  NSHO5 / 20 7 / 15In short grass around boggy edges of marshes and ponds, in a lined depression on ground. 
  Northern Pintail  NOPI4 / 15 7 / 15In vegetation lined depression on ground in open area with sparse vegetation, usually near a marsh or pond. 
  Green-winged Teal  AGWT5 / 1 / Quiet ponds 
  Hooded Merganser  HOME5 / 1 / Quiet ponds 
  Common Merganser  COME4 / 15 8 / 1Clear fresh water, ponds, streams, 
  Ruddy Duck  RUDU5 / 10 8 / 15Nest attached to tall reeds, 7-8 inches above water. 
FAMILY: Phasianidae (Partidges, Grouse, Turkey, and Old World Quail)
  Ring-necked Pheasant  RNEP4 / 15 7 / 1Near marshes and in over-grown fields. Nest on ground and hard to find. 
  Sooty Grouse  SOGR4 / 1 8 / 1Coniferous forest in mountains 
  Wild Turkey  WITU4 / 15 8 / 15In a scooped out hollow on the ground in a dry place. May be lined with dry grass. 
FAMILY: Odontophoridae (New World Quails)
  Mountain Quail  MOUQ4 / 15 7 / 15Overgrown clearings and burns in forested mountains, chaparral and juniper usually above 2000 feet. Depression in ground under brush or limb. 
  California Quail  CAQU4 / 1 9 / 1On ground, under brush or in rock cranny in covered depression lined with dead leaves, grass. 
FAMILY: Podicipedidae (Grebes)
  Pied-billed Grebe  PBGR5 / 1 8 / 1On floating vegetation slightly above fresh water deeper than one foot. Hard to see. Adult slips away from nest when disturbed. 
  Eared Grebe  EAGR4 / 15 8 / 1Ponds with vegetation. 
  Western Grebe  WEGR6 / 1 9 / 30 
  Clark's Grebe  CLGR6 / 1 9 / 30 
FAMILY: Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants)
  Brandt's Cormorant  BRAC4 / 15 8 / 15Rocky cliffs above tideline. Sides of sea stacks.  
  Double-crested Cormorant  DCCO4 / 15 8 / 1Bulky stick nest on ground or in dead or living tree at any height, always near water. Colonial. 
  Pelagic Cormorant  PECO4 / 15 8 / 10Rocky shoreline cliffs above tideline. Sea stacks. 
FAMILY: Ardeidae (Herons, Bitterns, and allies)
  American Bittern  AMBI5 / 1 7 / 31Very well hidden on mound among marsh plants, cattails in fresh water preferred. 
  Great Blue Heron  GBHE3 / 1 8 / 1Solitary or colonial, on bulky stick nests high in trees, easily seen. 
  Great Egret  GREG5 / 15 8 / 1Solitary or colonial nesting, sometimes with other species, in trees or shrubs usually more than ten feet above ground. 
  Snowy Egret  SNEG5 / 1 8 / 1Same as Great Egret except this species occasionally nests in marsh vegetation instead of trees.  
  Cattle Egret  CAEG5 / 1 7 / 31Nest of reeds, twigs, sticks and vines in wet pastures, plowed fields, marshes and lawns. Male collects, female builds. Highly colonial. 
  Green Heron  GRHE4 / 15 7 / 15Usually solitary, colonial occasionally, in tree, bush or on the ground. Check small riparian creeks. 
  Black-crowned Night-Heron  BCNH5 / 1 8 / 1Usually colonial, in sites that range from low marsh vegetation to tall trees. 
FAMILY: Cathartidae (New World Vultures)
  Turkey Vulture  TUVU5 / 1 7 / 15No nest. Eggs laid on bare ground or gravel on cliff ledge or in cave, sometimes in hollow stump or tree. 
FAMILY: Accipitridae (Hawks, Kites, Eagles, and Allies)
  Osprey  OSPR5 / 1 7 / 15Near fresh or salt water, bulky conspicuous stick nest on ground or most commonly on top of a tree or man-made structures.. 
  White-tailed Kite  WTKI3 / 15 7 / 1Savannah, marsh, streamside areas and orchards. Bulky twig and grass nest in tree. 
  Bald Eagle  BAEA3 / 1 7 / 1large snags near water 
  Northern Harrier  NOHA4 / 15 7 / 10In marshes or brushy fields, bulky stick nest on or near ground, hidden by brush or tall grass. 
  Sharp-shinned Hawk  SSHA5 / 1 7 / 15Woodlands, mountainous coniferous/deciduous forest Nest by trunk, broad, flat, of sticks, twigs; lined with smaller twigs, grass, conifer needles 
  Cooper's Hawk  COHA4 / 15 7 / 15In riparian groves and mountain canyons, in stick nest in tree 20 to forty feet high. 
  Red-shouldered Hawk  RSHA3 / 15 7 / 15Riparian, usually near stream, suburban large trees; nest halfway up near the main trunk. Nest smaller than Red-Tailed Hawk. Likes eucalyptus tress.  
  Swainson's Hawk  SWHA4 / 15 7 / 15Agricultural land with scattered trees, savanna, open conifer/oak woodland, prairie. 
  Red-tailed Hawk  RTHA3 / 15 7 / 15Woodland and open country with scattered trees. Bulky nest of sticks and twigs in crotch of large tree or on rocky cliff. 
  Golden Eagle  GOEA3 / 15 7 / 15On rocky ledge or treetop. Stick nest; new material added each year. Frequently alternates between two nesting sites. 
FAMILY: Falconidae (Falcons and Caracaras)
  American Kestrel  AMKE4 / 15 7 / 15Natural tree cavity, old woodpecker hole, nest box or in crannies in eaves of building. Rarely in open. Little or no nesting material added to cavity. 
  Peregrine Falcon  PEFA4 / 1 7 / 15Cliffs, tall structures like bridges and buildings in open areas.  
FAMILY: Rallidae (Rails, Gallinules, and Coots)
  Black Rail  BLRA5 / 1 7 / 1Deep cup of loosely woven grass in depression under arch of matted dead marsh grass. Found in salicornia. 
  Clapper Rail  CLRA4 / 15 7 / 15In tidal marshes, nest attached to several reed stems above water level at high tide. 
  Virginia Rail  VIRA4 / 15 7 / 1Usually in freshwater marshes, but occasionally in upper reaches of saltwater marshes in sedges or cattails just above water. 
  Sora  SORA5 / 15 7 / 15Freshwater marshes, wet meadows, usually over deeper water than Virginia Rail. Nest indistinguishable from Virginia Rail. 
  Common Gallinule  COMO4 / 15 7 / 15Floating platform on fresh-water marshes, channels and ponds, usually where water is covered with duck-weed, but sometimes in shrub near water. 
  American Coot  AMCO5 / 1 8 / 15Nest, a floating platform anchored to plants in freshwater marsh, and near cattails in reservoirs. 
FAMILY: Charadriidae (Lapwings and Plovers)
  Snowy Plover  SNPL4 / 1 8 / 15Undisturbed coastal dune or near water. 
  Killdeer  KILL4 / 10 7 / 1Depression in bare ground, gravel or pebbles in dry river bed, railway bed, dry area near pond or lake and even on gravel roof, usually unlined. 
FAMILY: Haematopodidae (Oystercatchers)
  Black Oystercatcher  BLOY4 / 15 8 / 1Rocky shoreline above tideline. 
FAMILY: Recurvirostridae (Stilts and Avocets)
  Black-necked Stilt  BNST5 / 1 7 / 1Colonial on dike or mound near water. Very aggressive with intruders; uses both broken leg and broken wing distraction display.  
  American Avocet  AMAV5 / 15 7 / 5Loosely colonial near ponds, marshes estuaries, mud flats. Nest among tufts of vegetation on gravel, sand, mud below brush. 
FAMILY: Scolopacidae (Sandpipers, Phalaropes, and Allies)
  Spotted Sandpiper  SPSA6 / 1 7 / 15Wide variety of habitats: semi-open vegetation near water. Nest, a scrape in grass, moss, forbs, tangles, among rocks, etc., usually 2-4 eggs.  
  Wilson's Phalarope  WIPH6 / 10 7 / 15Nest a scrape made by male is open or well concealed in sparse vegetation on damp ground in fresh water marsh, slough, wet meadow, or island. 
FAMILY: Laridae (Gulls, Terns, and Skimmers)
  Western Gull  WEGU4 / 1 8 / 1Colonial on predator free islands or rocky islets, rotten piers, rotted pilings, flat roofs, bay markers. 
  Forster's Tern  FOTE5 / 1 8 / 15Colonial, fresh or saltwater marshes and marshy borders of reservoirs, islands in sloughs. 
FAMILY: Alcidae (Auks, Murres, and Puffins)
  Common Murre  COMU6 / 1 7 / 31 
  Pigeon Guillemot  PIGU4 / 14 7 / 15Rocky coastline, cliffs, seastacks 
  Marbled Murrelet  MAMU5 / 1 7 / 10Old growth conifers within 30 miles of coast. 
  Rhinoceros Auklet  RHAU5 / 15 7 / 31 
FAMILY: Columbidae (Pigeons and Doves)
  Rock Pigeon  ROPI3 / 1 8 / 15Singly or colonial, on ledges, natural or man-made near human habitation, in barns and abandoned buildings. 
  Band-tailed Pigeon  BTPI2 / 1 7 / 15Oak woodland or coniferous forest, usually 15-40’ high on horizontal limb close to trunk. 
  Eurasian Collared-Dove  EUCD3 / 1 8 / 15Recent invader, under eaves and limbs 
  Mourning Dove  MODO3 / 15 8 / 15In tree 10-100’ high, occasionally on ground, in flimsy nest of twigs and rootlets. 
FAMILY: Tytonidae (Barn Owls)
  Barn Owl  BANO3 / 15 8 / 1In cavities, caves, buildings and nest boxes. Look for pellets under eucalyptus, oak and date palm trees. 
FAMILY: Strigidae (Typical Owls)
  Western Screech-Owl  WESO3 / 15 7 / 15Oak & riparian woodlands, scrub, orchards, woodlots in old woodpecker holes or natural cavities, man-made crevices or nest box. 
  Great Horned Owl  GHOW1 / 1 7 / 1In old nest of large bird, i.e., Red-tailed Hawk, and in tree cavities, caves. 
  Northern Pygmy-Owl  NOPO5 / 1 7 / 10Open coniferous or mixed woods, wooded canyons, in abandoned woodpecker hole or natural cavity. 
  Burrowing Owl  BUOW4 / 15 7 / 15Grasslands, prairie, levee, open area near golf course or airport. In burrows of ground squirrels, or man-made burrow-like structures. 
  Spotted Owl  SPOW3 / 1 7 / 15Old growth or older 2nd growth conifers with 70% cover canopy or more.  
  Barred Owl  BADO3 / 1 7 / 15 
  Northern Saw-whet Owl  NSWO4 / 1 7 / 15Dense coniferous and mixed coniferous-deciduous forest, wooded swamps, bogs; nest in woodpecker holes and natural cavities. 
FAMILY: Caprimulgidae (Nighthawks and Allies)
  Common Nighthawk  CONI6 / 1 7 / 15Gravel clearings or surfaces 
  Common Poorwill  COPO4 / 1 8 / 31Rough chaparral slopes, rocky outcrops and tablelands, usually arid or semi-arid. On bare ground, often under bush. 
FAMILY: Apodidae (Swifts)
  Vaux's Swift  VASW4 / 15 8 / 10Inside chimneys or natural snags.  
  White-throated Swift  WTSW4 / 20 7 / 1In crevice in cliff, building, bridge, or overpass in drain pipe. 
FAMILY: Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
  Anna's Hummingbird  ANHU1 / 15 7 / 15Nest, almost anywhere, made of plant down and spider silk; thick walls built up after eggs laid; lichen added to exterior. 
  Allen's Hummingbird  ALHU2 / 15 6 / 1Primarily in moist areas, canyons in chaparral, thickets, brushy slopes, open coniferous forest, riparian, eucalyptus groves and residential areas. 
FAMILY: Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)
  Belted Kingfisher  BEKI5 / 1 7 / 15Usually along a stream, in a burrow in an earth bank, usually 1-3 feet from top; entrance floor has grooves on either side. 
FAMILY: Picidae (Woodpeckers and Allies)
  Acorn Woodpecker  ACWO4 / 15 8 / 1Colonial, usually in deciduous snag, especially dead or dying oaks, also utility poles.  
  Red-breasted Sapsucker  RBSA5 / 1 8 / 1Conifers and mixed woods 
  Nuttall's Woodpecker  NUWO4 / 15 7 / 15Usually in excavated cavity in dead oak or riparian deciduous tree. Male does most of incubation, including all nocturnal incubation and brooding. 
  Downy Woodpecker  DOWO4 / 15 8 / 1Riparian woods and residential areas; deciduous woodlands, especially willows; mixed oak-deciduous woodlands in excavated cavity in dead wood. 
  Hairy Woodpecker  HAWO5 / 1 7 / 31Mixed deciduous & coniferous woodlands & forests; pure coniferous stands; rarely lowland riparian areas. 
  (unid. Red/Yellow Shafted) Northern Flicker  NOFL4 / 15 7 / 1Usually in woodland or forest, but also in parks, gardens, orchards. Cavity nest, often perennial. 
  Pileated Woodpecker  PIWO4 / 15 7 / 15Deciduous/coniferous forests and open woodlands; nest hole usually in dead wood, often oval or triangular, narrower at top.  
FAMILY: Troglodytidae (Wrens)
  Pacific Wren  PAWR4 / 15 7 / 15Cavitys in trees or old rotten logs and occasionally woodpecker holes. 
FAMILY: Tyrannidae (Tyrant Flycatchers)
  Olive-sided Flycatcher  OSFL6 / 1 7 / 15Open coniferous/deciduous forest with lots of dead trees. Preference for Douglas Fir in canyon. 
  Western Wood-Pewee  WEWP5 / 1 8 / 1Oak or riparian woodlands, Cup nest usually 15-40 feet high on horizontal Y of branch. 
  Dusky Flycatcher  DUFL4 / 15 7 / 15Large inland conifers, mountain tops 
  Pacific-slope Flycatcher  PSFL4 / 15 7 / 10Deciduous and coniferous woodlands, especially near streams, even gardens. Nest on ground or to 30 feet high in notch or crotch, behind loose bark. 
  Black Phoebe  BLPH4 / 1 7 / 15Over or near water, in woodland, canyon, suburb, farmland, under bridges over water, on or under structures. 
  Ash-throated Flycatcher  ATFL4 / 25 7 / 15In scrub, chaparral, open and riparian woodlands, especially oaks and junipers; in natural cavity or woodpecker hole, usually less than 20 feet high. 
  Western Kingbird  WEKI4 / 15 8 / 1Dry, open country, agricultural lands, riparian woodlands, in tall tree or power pole. 
FAMILY: Laniidae (Shrikes)
  Loggerhead Shrike  LOSH2 / 10 7 / 1Open country with occasional trees or shrubs. Stick nest well concealed in dense foliage. 
FAMILY: Vireonidae (Vireos)
  Cassin's Vireo  CAVI5 / 1 7 / 15Densely wooded canyons, oaks and riparian areas. Suspended cup nest in tree fork, 3-30 feet up. 
  Hutton's Vireo  HUVI2 / 1 7 / 1Usually in a live oak, but also in other trees and shrubs, 7-25 feet high. 
  Warbling Vireo  WAVI4 / 15 7 / 20Riparian and mixed woodlands. Basketlike deep cup nest suspended in fork of small branch, below 30 feet. 
FAMILY: Corvidae (Crows and Jays)
  Gray Jay  GRAJ5 / 1 8 / 15Coniferous forest 
  Steller's Jay  STJA3 / 15 7 / 10Coniferous and mixed oak-pine forest, oak-madrone canyons; 8-40 feet high, usually in conifer, sometimes in shrub. 
  Western Scrub-Jay  WESJ3 / 10 7 / 10Chaparral, stream bottoms and in suburbs especially if live oaks present. Very dense foliage around nest. 
  American Crow  AMCR3 / 15 7 / 1Open country with scattered trees; towns. Large bundle of stick in tree crotch near trunk or on utility pole, or tower. 
  Common Raven  CORA3 / 15 7 / 1Mainly on cliff ledges, tall conifers, nest of large sticks. Look for fallen nest material at base of cliff, whitewash just below nest site. 
FAMILY: Alaudidae (Larks)
  Horned Lark  HOLA4 / 15 8 / 1Dry grasslands or plowed fields. Nest, in depression in ground, partly under a clod or clump of grass, made of dried grass. 
FAMILY: Hirundinidae (Swallows)
  Purple Martin  PUMA4 / 15 8 / 1Open country, savanna, rural areas, especially near water in tree hole, cliff niche, or other cavity. 
  Tree Swallow  TRES4 / 10 7 / 1Widespread and common in foothill, riparian woodland near water. Nest in woodpecker hole, natural cavity or nest box.. 
  Violet-green Swallow  VGSW4 / 10 7 / 1Tree cavities, woodpecker holes and crevices in cliffs, mainly at higher elevations; also in wooded lowlands. 
  Northern Rough-winged Swallow  NRWS4 / 20 7 / 1Open country, especially near running water, in burrow or crevice, either natural or man-made, e.g., kingfisher burrow & highway overpass drain holes. 
  Cliff Swallow  CLSW3 / 20 7 / 15Plaster mud, gourd-shaped nests with small side entrance under eaves of buildings and bridges, natural cliffs, even trees. Close to source of mud. 
  Barn Swallow  BARS4 / 10 8 / 31Usually nest near water under bridge or eaves of building. Nest, of mud and straw plastered to vertical surface, has open top. 
FAMILY: Paridae (Chickadees and Titmice)
  Chestnut-backed Chickadee  CBCH4 / 1 7 / 15Solano county habitat usually riparian or live oak groves. In natural or excavated cavity, usually below 10 feet. 
  Oak Titmouse  OATI3 / 1 6 / 15Juniper and oak woodland, in natural or excavated cavity up to 30 feet above ground. May do minor excavation of hole. Will use nest box. 
FAMILY: Aegithalidae (Bushtits and Long-tailed Tits)
  Bushtit  BUSH3 / 10 7 / 1Woodlands, scrub, chaparral, and adjacent suburbs. Gourd-shaped, pendulous nest, conspicuous, 6-35 feet up in tree. 
FAMILY: Sittidae (Nuthatches)
  Red-breasted Nuthatch  RBNU5 / 15 8 / 1Coniferous forest 
  White-breasted Nuthatch  WBNU3 / 15 7 / 15In oaks and conifers in canyons, in cavity 15-50 feet high. May excavate own cavity. 
  Pygmy Nuthatch  PYNU4 / 1 7 / 1Conifers in fog belt. Cavity nester.  
FAMILY: Certhiidae (Creepers)
  Brown Creeper  BRCR3 / 15 7 / 1Coniferous forest, oaks, riparian areas. Nest behind loose bark. 
FAMILY: Troglodytidae (Wrens)
  Rock Wren  ROWR4 / 15 7 / 15Variety of rocky & gravelly habitats, including quarries, in crevice or beneath overhang. 
  Canyon Wren  CANW5 / 1 7 / 15In steep-sided canyons, rocky streams, occasionally in arid areas in crevice in rock monolith. 
  Bewick's Wren  BEWR4 / 1 8 / 1Chaparral, mixed brush & oak, riparian, in cavity or crevice usually near ground also in woodpecker hole. 
  House Wren  HOWR4 / 1 8 / 15Nest sites in more wooded areas than Bewick’s. In natural cavity, crevice or in structures, female completes one of the male’s dummy nests. 
  Marsh Wren  MAWR5 / 1 7 / 15Fresh & brackish marshes with abundant reeds. Nest attached to several reed stems. Two to 4 dummy nests.  
FAMILY: Cinclidae (Dippers)
  American Dipper  AMDI4 / 1 7 / 1side of flowing clear water creeks, usually under bridge or large logs 
FAMILY: Regulidae (Kinglets)
  Golden-crowned Kinglet  GCKI4 / 15 8 / 1Densely needled redwoods and douglas firs, high in tress 
FAMILY: Sylviidae (Gnatcatchers and Old World Warblers)
  Blue-gray Gnatcatcher  BGGN4 / 20 7 / 20Chaparral slopes and oak woodland in dry canyons. Nest height 4-25 feet. 
FAMILY: Turdidae (Thrushes)
  Western Bluebird  WEBL4 / 1 8 / 1In open woodlands, in natural cavity, woodpecker hole, nest box. 
  Swainson's Thrush  SWTH6 / 1 8 / 1Shaded riparian woodlands of canyons and lowlands, prefers dense willow-alder stands. Nest on horizontal branch 2-20 feet high. 
  Hermit Thrush  HETH4 / 15 7 / 1Cool coniferous forests. 
  American Robin  AMRO4 / 1 8 / 15Open woodlands, suburbs, farmyards 
FAMILY: Timaliidae (Babblers)
  Wrentit  WREN4 / 15 8 / 1In chaparral bush, 1 ½ -2 feet off ground. Three nests found in ’04 averaged ~4.5’ high. 
FAMILY: Mimidae (Mockingbirds and Thrashers)
  Northern Mockingbird  NOMO3 / 15 8 / 1Open woodland or scrubland, parks, gardens. Nest in dense bush or tree, 1-40 feet high. 
  California Thrasher  CATH2 / 15 7 / 10Chaparral, riparian with dense ground cover, brush along stream, suburbs with abundant planting. Nest hidden in shrub or low tree. 
FAMILY: Sturnidae (Starlings)
  European Starling  EUST4 / 1 8 / 1Colonies occur where suitable cavities/crevices abound in tree/building. Drives away primary and secondary cavity nesters. 
FAMILY: Bombycillidae (Waxwings and Allies)
  Cedar Waxwing  CEDW6 / 10 7 / 15 
FAMILY: Parulidae (Wood-warblers)
  Orange-crowned Warbler  OCWA4 / 1 7 / 10Brushlands, willow thickets, oak woodlands & taller chaparral. Nest on hill slope, often on steep bank on ground or less than 3 feet high in shrub. 
  Nashville Warbler  NAWA5 / 1 7 / 15Moderate mixed woods in mountains 
  Yellow Warbler  YWAR4 / 15 8 / 1Tall riparian stands of willows, alders, etc. In upright crotch of tree or shrub, 2-12 feet high. 
  (unid. Myrtle/Audubon's) Yellow-rumped Warbler  YRWA6 / 1 7 / 15Typically on horizontal branch of conifer, often near truck, 4-50 feet above ground. Occasionally in hardwoods. 
  Black-throated Gray Warbler  BTYW5 / 10 8 / 1Arid coniferous-oak woodlands. On horizontal branch of tree, 3-10 feet (rarely up to 50 feet) high, 4-10 feet from trunk. 
  Hermit Warbler  HEWA4 / 15 7 / 1Coniferous forests, may be high in tress 
  MacGillivray's Warbler  MGWA4 / 15 7 / 1Forested thickets, usually near water or on meadows. 
  Common Yellowthroat  COYE5 / 10 8 / 1Female builds near fresh, brackish or saltwater marsh, in marsh plants or nearby shrub. Nest near ground. 
  Wilson's Warbler  WIWA4 / 15 8 / 1In canyons and low dense thickets of willows & other shrubs in well-watered locations, on steep slopes. In depression on or near ground in dense veg. 
  Yellow-breasted Chat  YBCH5 / 15 8 / 1Dense riparian thickets, in the lowlands. Nest in brush or thicket, 2-6 feet high. 
FAMILY: Thraupidae (Tanagers)
  Western Tanager  WETA5 / 15 7 / 15Coniferous forests and oak woodlands, especially likely near a spring; in fork of horizontal branch, well out from trunk, greater than 15 feet high. 
FAMILY: Emberizidae (Emberizids)
  Spotted Towhee  SPTO4 / 15 8 / 1In dense chaparral, riparian thickets, forest edge or woodland. Nest on ground or dense bush, hard to find. 
  California Towhee  CALT4 / 1 8 / 1Chaparral, or riparian shrubs, parks, suburban gardens. Nest in dense bush, hard to find. 
  Rufous-crowned Sparrow  RCSP5 / 1 7 / 15Steep rock chaparral slopes where shrubs intermix with small grass areas. Usually on ground under shrub or grass clump. 
  Chipping Sparrow  CHSP5 / 1 8 / 1Open woodlands with grassy understory. Occasionally in orchard or vineyard. Nest usually 3-10 feet high in tree. 
  Black-chinned Sparrow  BCSP5 / 1 8 / 1The most arid chaparral covered slopes.Likes burned areas. Nest in a shrub often sage. 
  Lark Sparrow  LASP4 / 10 7 / 15Open oak woodlands mixed with grasslands or pasture. Nest usually on bare or eroded ground, shaded by plant clump.  
  Sage Sparrow  SAGS4 / 15 8 / 1Low dense chaparral, in bush 3 feet or higher. 
  Savannah Sparrow  SAVS5 / 1 7 / 1Grasslands, salicornia (pickleweed) marshes bordering coastal estuary. 
  Grasshopper Sparrow  GRSP4 / 15 7 / 1Grassland, cultivated and abandoned fields, prairie, open savanna. 
  Song Sparrow  SOSP3 / 1 7 / 1Dense vegetation along watercourses and coasts, marshes, in nest of grass, forbs, leaves, beneath grass tuft, shrub, brush pile on ground to 3 feet. 
  White-crowned Sparrow  WCSP4 / 1 7 / 15Coastal scrub and thickets. Nest low to ground 
  (unid. race) Dark-eyed Junco  DEJU3 / 10 8 / 1Coniferous and deciduous forest and edge, open woodland, bogs. Dense ground vegetation is required. 
FAMILY: Cardinalidae (Cardinals, Saltators, and Allies)
  Black-headed Grosbeak  BHGR4 / 15 8 / 1Dense oak woodland and orchards. Green Valley, Mix and Gates Canyons. 
  Blue Grosbeak  BLGR5 / 1 8 / 1Riparian thickets, woodlands, orchards, hedgerows in nest of twigs, hair, leaves, grass. 
  Lazuli Bunting  LAZB5 / 10 8 / 1Chaparral, especially recently burned areas, brushy, dry borders of lakes and streams. Nest in fork of tree or bush, 2-4 feet high. 
  Indigo Bunting  INBU5 / 10 8 / 1Chaparral, brushy, dry borders of lakes and streams. Nest in fork of tree or bush, 2-4 feet high. 
FAMILY: Icteridae (Blackbirds and Orioles)
  Red-winged Blackbird  RWBL4 / 1 7 / 1Freshwater and brackish marshes, riparian habitats, fields. 
  Tricolored Blackbird  TRBL5 / 1 7 / 15Near or over water, also in agicultural crops. Woven of sedges, grass, forbs, lined with fine grass. Built in 4 days. 
  Western Meadowlark  WEME4 / 1 8 / 1Grassland, savannah, pasture, cultivated fields. 
  Brewer's Blackbird  BRBL3 / 15 7 / 10Shrubby, brushy areas especially near water, riparian woodland, cultivated lands, marshes, around human habitation. 
  Great-tailed Grackle  GTGR5 / 1 8 / 1Oft near water; large, bulky, rim woven to supports, built with twigs, forbs rushes, sedges, mud. Lined with fine grass, rootlets, trash. 
  Brown-headed Cowbird  BHCO4 / 15 7 / 15Woodland, deciduous forest, forest edge, grassland.  
  Hooded Oriole  HOOR5 / 1 6 / 30Riparian woodland, palm trees, deciduous woodland, around human habitation. 
  Bullock's Oriole  BUOR4 / 10 8 / 1Open and riparian woodland, deciduous forest edge, open areas with scattered trees such as orchards, around human habitation. 
FAMILY: Fringillidae (Fringilline and Cardueline Finches)
  Purple Finch  PUFI4 / 1 7 / 1Wooded canyons with oaks or mixed oaks and conifers. On horizontal branch, usually at fork, 5-60 feet high. 
  House Finch  HOFI3 / 15 8 / 1Nest loosely woven of dried grass; outside of nest splashed with feces. 
  Red Crossbill  RECR / / Conifer forest 
  Pine Siskin  PISI4 / 15 7 / 10Coniferous and mixed woods 
  Lesser Goldfinch  LEGO4 / 15 7 / 15Riparian areas with bushes, but only scattered trees, chaparral, oaks, suburban gardens. Nest in tree or bush, 2-30 feet high. 
  Lawrence's Goldfinch  LAGO4 / 15 7 / 15Chaparral, oak woodland, riparian thickets, in tree or shrub, 2-30 feet high. Needs nearby grasslands and water. Sometimes semi-colonial. 
  American Goldfinch  AMGO5 / 1 8 / 1Overgrown fields with scattered trees; forest openings. Nest in fork of tree or bush where about four limbs rise nearly vertically, 4-14 feet high.  
FAMILY: Passeridae (Old World Sparrows)
  House Sparrow  HOSP4 / 1 8 / 15Found wherever there people or domestic livestock. Nests in any kind of cavity or crevice.  
* Alpha Codes are also known as 'banding codes' (not AOU codes, which are numeric)
** Safe dates represent a window when a singing male is assumed not to be in migration, and therefore on territory. Some atlases do not use safe dates, because they prefer (given present knowledge) not to assume migration or territorial status of all individuals. Safe dates generally apply to the Possible breeding category only when used.
Back to: Sonoma Co. (CA) 2011-2016
Related topics: Rare Species | Common Species
U.S. Department of the Interior || U.S. Geological Survey || Patuxent Wildlife Research Center  Laurel, MD, USA 20708-4038
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Last updated: Site - May 2014; Content - various, depending on atlas.
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