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LONG TERM
MONITORING OF  ECOLOGICAL  PROCESSES  FOR PROTECTED SMALL ISLANDS

Lavezzi Island Lighthouse

Workshop

8-12 November 1999
Natural Reserve of Bonifacio Strait
International Marine Park

Lavezzi Island Lighthouse
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SPONSORS 

Réserves Naturelles de France, Commission Scientifique, Groupe îlots marins et milieu sous-marin
US Geological Survey - Western Ecological Research Center

MAB France
US MAB
Office de l'Environnement de la Corse
Ministère de l'Aménagement du territoire et de l'Environnement


Report
July 25, 2001
   

The workshop was held on the island of Lavezzi, Corsica, November 8-12, 1999. This workshop was held to identify a network of small island reserves as potential pilot sites for long term ecological monitoring, for testing monitoring methodologies, and for understanding ecological processes. The workshop was conducted in English and French.

The goal of the workshop was to develop a protocol for interdisciplinary monitoring of marine and terrestrial environments of islets as nature sanctuaries and integral reserves for applications to research, management, and education. With the following objectives:

(1) Identify methods to study the interrelations between marine, intertidal, and terrestrial systems for development of functional models of micro-insular ecosystems.
(2) Identify study participants and protocols for data collection.
(3) Identify the methods for data analyses.
(4) Select sites for pilot studies.

Marine islets are characterized by the juxtaposition physical and ecological factors in three components: marine, tidal, and terrestrial systems. It is important to understand the many interactions that occur between these three components to develop a global approach for protection of these complex systems. A major task of nature reserves is long term monitoring of environments for assessing changes and impacts both natural and human caused. During the workshop we examined the unique ecological aspects of marine islets stressing common ecological processes to be monitored on a set of different islets. We plan to form a network around three major themes: (1) use a global approach about ecological interactions and functions of marine islets; (2) use of indicator features that are representative of changes or trends which can be monitored for the long term; and (3) establish guidelines for management that will maintain the integrity of the ecological processes of islets.

Specifically, the workshop participants plan to produce a final proposal identifying study sites among the network islands, specific methods of study, sample sizes, and personnel requirements necessary to achieve the network goal. Network participants will use the proposal to obtain funding for their respective units of the network.

The organizing committee and invitees made presentations about their respective island reserves, critical resource issues, and monitoring needs.

Time Table for planning and implementation

1999: Workshop I, France
2001: Complete network and protocol plan
2002-2005: Comparative study on islet network
2005: Workshop II, Conclusions and validation of monitoring methods and publication of results

SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

BIORET F., CULIOLI J.-M., GOURMELON F., HOWELL J., PASCAL M., SIORAT F.

BACKGROUND

The following is a definition and role of effective monitoring for adaptive management of natural resources.

Monitoring permits evaluation of management efficiency for harvested, endangered, or indicator species, documentation of compliance with regulatory requirements, and detection of incipient change in natural populations and habitats. Monitoring is the collection and analysis of repeated observations or measurements to evaluate changes in condition and progress toward meeting a management objective. Monitoring has a role in "adaptive management" in which monitoring serves to track the response of a resource to management and to direct future management activities as well as changes to objectives. Monitoring information is wasted if it is not analyzed correctly, archived well, reported timely, or communicated appropriately to policymakers.

The goal of monitoring is generally to develop a scientifically defensible estimation f the status and trends in wildlife resources and to determine whether management practices are sustaining those resources or should be changed. The first step in meeting threats is recognizing them. Monitoring must be effective, economical, and sustainable over the foreseeable future.

Evaluating alterations in wildlife resources involves detection of changes and identification of he causes of those changes. Responses to detected changes may be of 4 types that depend on their cause as well as temporal nature.

1. Purely natural changes are part of a natural state and are only observed.
2. Anthropogenic changes; those influenced directly or indirectly by human activity, initiate active responses.
3. Past anthropogenic changes require restoration.
4. Current anthropogenic changes require mitigation, (is it possible or appropriate?)
5. Potential anthropogenic changes require prevention.

Objectives should be realistic and measurable and include these components:

1. What will be monitored?
2. Geographical area where it will be monitored
3. Specific metric of he indicator that will be measured
4. Expected response of the indicators to management
5. The magnitude o change expected
6. Time frame to respond to management needs.

An excellent source of basic information is the American Association for the Advancement of Science volume on inventory and monitoring and how it applies to small islands (Conant et al. 1983). It will be necessary to sort out the approaches and methods that apply to this scale for terrestrial and marine systems.

BEGINNING SESSION

Round table introductions of participants, introduction of schedule by Fred Bioret, and introduction of objectives by Judd Howell

Presentations

November 8, 1999

Judd Howell - Comparative study with France and inventory and monitoring program in the Mer d'Iroise and Central California Coast Biosphere Reserves.

Roger Hothem - Monitoring avifauna (black-crowned night-herons) on Alcatraz Island, Golden Gate National Recreation Area

Ed Ueber - Management and monitoring on the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary.

November 9, 1999

Carlos Fabregat - Columbretes islands, volcanic archipelago in Spain, vegetation succession and ecological processes, began in 1988. Important endemic plants, and birds including Eleonora's Falcon, Falco eleonorea, and Tricodroma muraria. Establish a beginning for monitoring, mapping vegetation, specific plant species, and nesting sites. Carlos discussed methods using vegetation associations, primary, secondary, and possibly tertiary. Birds were banded for population studies, census and monitoring.

Questions:
Are there other vertebrates on the island? Columbretes lizard, Podarcis atrata

David Draper - Flora of marine island Reserve Natural Das Berlengas, Portugal on the Atlantic face of Iberian Peninsula with Mediterranean climate, 10 to 20 km from the coast, 5 endemic species but with an invasion of Carpobrotus and Herring gull. Aerial photographs were taken in 1975 and subsequent mapping of Carpobrotus edulis using GPS and GIS mapping. Calculated growth rate of Carpobrotus using distribution and physical factors but now climatic data. Developed predicted distribution of invasive Carpobrotus using regression analysis including slope, aspect, and elevation variables. Review competition with distribution with endemic plants based on distribution on the island. This invasive plant could cover the entire island, therefore management is essential for the protection of endemics with focused efforts.

Questions:
Climate stations would be valuable for each site. Are automated systems available? Not all things may be answered with technology.

Alain Mante - Marseille has two archipelagos du friol and de Riou near its coastline. The limestone islands have sparse vegetation because the sites are very dry and were formerly managed by the military. Microhabitat variation contributed to distribution of plant species and wind sculpting shapes some species. There are cliffs on the south side of the islands. Two species bird are important, Puffain angles and the growing gull population of Larus cachinnans. Methods included overlaying the island with grid in cells and relevay for different plant species, each cell represents a range of values, 0, 1-2, etc. Carpobrotus (ice plant) invasion is a problem for the protection of native plant species. Visitation by people in small boats and zodiacs provides direct unrestricted access primarily on the weekend. Frequency of visitation at points on the islands has been measured. Management issues include rats as a problem in the island, the contribution of nitrates and phosphates from the gulls to the system and invasion of plants, loss of plants as a result of colonization of gulls. Management includes rat trapping and exclosures to protects native plants.

Question:
Are there any other terrestrial vertebrates on the island? just Rattus rattus

Fred Jean - Inventory of micro fauna in the intertidal area in the Mer d'Iroise BR in 1992, and also on Sept Ile where they applied the same methodology in the 7 m tidal range. Objectives were to evaluate habitats and inventory for of future monitoring. Map of habitats with aerial photographs coupled with intensive field exploration. They examined substratum, rock, boulders, pebble, sand and established 12 themes with substrate and main algae species. The developed surprisingly good maps of sub tidal to 10 m depth at 1 m resolution with proportional stratified random sampling, 65 quantitative samples in 5 campaigns over 18 months. They needed 4 people to sample 1 m2 in 1 hr. 329 species were identified with estimates of abundance for all species. They calculated abundances for macro fauna such as gastropods. The site manager was given the numerical database for use and did not expect such a detailed map. Future directions: How to go further with these results. What should be monitored, habitats, species richness, or specific species? What is the time frame and at what scales?

Inventory is a reference to evaluate the impacts of recreation fishing
Pressure index of recreation fishing
Compare communities with or without fishing
Experimental perturbations of boulder fields
Identify 'sensible' species (indicator species)
Develop a frequentation disturbance index that is scientific based.

Fred Bioret - Studies are occurring on 4 archipelagos, Sept. Ile, Molene, Lavezzi and Cerbicale with Reserve Natural du France and developing relations between Brittany and Corsica. . Methods set up in the Mer d'Iroise BR include vegetation mapping, effects of herring and greater black backed gull, and rabbits on vegetation communities. Main results include vegetation in initial stages prior to perturbations and impacted vegetation from gulls and rabbits, third stage community with nitrophiles species. More precise analyses of data with GIS is needed to determine what proportions are stable, the degree of restoration or degradation of plant associations. Studies will continue to develop the state of the vegetation dynamic and the effect of perturbations and restorations. Results of the state of conservation must be report the every six years to the EEU.

Francoise Gourmelon - Studies are focused on the integration of data into GIS. GIS is integral for the analyses of environmental change and to assess the response of organisms in the environment. The main emphasis of research is the production of cartographic information for spatial analyses, determining database structure, hierarchical format, and locational analyses for the derivation of new relational date or products from the integration of multiple spatial data sets. Use of photo interpretation for distribution of vegetation is an important aspect of the research. Once this type of information is in a spatial database it can be used for further analyses, for example, the examination of the distribution of bird nests and the secondary succession of bracken. The result is effective data management, analysis, and synthesis by integrating the use of spatial statistical analyses, remote sensing analyses, and ecosystem modeling.

Michel Delaugerre - Studies presented an example of mapping of small islands for the Park Natural Regional. There are 111 small islands with vascular plants. The small islands around Corsica varied from 1 ha to 100 ha. There were 80 islands with reptiles, for example Podarcis, sp. and 2 islands with amphibians. The gecko, Phyllodoctylus, specializes in living in crevasses and lays hard-shelled eggs. How many generations have these populations persisted? They show differences in size between sites and differences in degree of sexual dimorphism, gigantism and dwarfism. The relationship of capacity of vegetation and height of the island is an example of topographic variation. The explanation on islands with more species of plants provides opportunities for ecological partitioning of resources between males and females.

Jean-Michel Culioli - Studies are for the protection of natural resources in Corsica located in the Reserve Naturelle des Bouches de Bonifacio. The goal is to develop long term and medium term objectives for the conservation of natural resources with research and management working together to develop applications. The organization of the Reserve Naturelle has a number of components, monitoring, ecological studies, management, and protection. Methods of study include, mapping the distribution of species and line transects for marine species to examine zones of vegetation, rocks, and their ecotones. They have 4 locations around Lavezzi Island for sampling marine fishes. Differences in size classes found in the locations around the island illustrate the effect on fish reproductive cycles. Regulation of fishing is a function of timing and location. Cycle of sea urchin and algae communities are effected by over fishing influence this system with the fish as keystone species.

Must know ecological role and context for species.

Alan Camoin - Conservation of insular populations of gulls, Larus audouinii, is a problem because they are very rare on the small islands around Corsica. On the islands where the species is specially protected it is relatively more abundant. Number of pairs is about 75 varying form 5 to 130. Breeding success is highly variable for 10% to 85%. Birds are trapped in trawl nets by fishermen, which contribute to mortality in the small population. The gulls also change locations for breeding to different countries. Results included a number of reports for different species.

Is breeding success the number of hatchlings or fledglings?

David Pala - Case study conducted in Sardinia, Asinara National Park, which had long history of human occupation. The island had Neolithic and Roman occupation. Thirty years ago the island was a prison that was converted to a National Park in 1997. The management is by a committee of 12 members selected by the Ministry of Environment. Very little is known about the biological resources of the island. We conducted a survey of biology of the island, but were required to complete them in 20 days. Battelle Ocean Sciences and the Universities of Sassari and Gaglari to conduct the survey formed a team. We used remote sensing, aerial photography, and ground truth with transect controls. We used an underwater video camera and side scanned sonar system with differential GPS data, geo-referenced points resulting in video output. The system resolution was 1 m2. Bathymetry and density of vegetation beds were measured. Spectral reflectance was used for image classification of the substrate. EEU established the protection of species regardless of where they are. Tried to test new technology that and complete the task in a short period of time.

Jean-Claude Thibault - Colonial birds and black rat were present 0n 72 islands in the western Mediterranean. General linear model was developed to examine the effect of island area and presence of rats on distribution and abundance of colonial nesting birds. Also examined were rock substrate effects. Species of concern were Cory's shearwater, Mediterranean Shearwater, storm petrel, and yellow-legged gulls. Mediterranean Shearwater was found on larger islands while storm petrels on smaller islands. Monitoring of sub colonies began in 1979. Access of the predators has had an effect on the success on different species. They have used remote camera's to capture predation events on nests for 10 seasons and have photos of rats at nests.

Francois Arrighi - Reserve Naturelle de Scandola is a reserve of the marine terrace on the West Coast of Corsica. The preserve focuses on Cystoseira spinosa, a red algae that is a protected species. Study the demography of the Cystoseira spinosa communities and the epiphyte (surpaturage) the community. Study sites were in seven locations along the shore or off islands in the reserve in the zone littoral. Primary variable is density. Distribution is a negative exponential with recent recruitment but normal with intraspecific competition. Cystoseira grows on Paracentrotus lividus. These are slow growing communities, dispersion 1 m/yr with old communities at 15 years. Predation on Paracentrotus by sea urchins effects recruitment of Cystoseira. Regulation of fishing, since larger numbers of fish reduce the number of urchins, and eradication of Oursins (sea urchins) are important management tools. This is similar to urchin predation by sea otters, the effect of keystone species. (Francois Arrighi) Note: Send Francois some of the literature from Jim Estes.

Guy-Francois Frisoni - Park Internatinal, Corsica/Sardinia, effort to institutionalize the project creating the park. The problem is the protection of the original natural resource in the marine and island systems. Main issue is the tourist visitation, scuba, fishing, and the number of boats in and around the islands. Commercial navigation is very heavy through the Bonifaccio Channel and is very dangerous, collision and pollution. Since 1992, they have been working to develop the structure international to regulate the park between France and Italy. There is a need for coordination for management and research. Regulation of the reserve is through zonation and protection at different levels.

Round Table Discussion to develop themes for working groups.

The following were main topics for discussion at the workshop. Foremost the group developed a clear definition of the system represented by small islands. A number of issues were raised which will require more detail as the network plan is formalized.

Definition of the system:

Coastal small islands in marine settings, not permanently inhabited (non residence), that are in protected reserves of the Mediterranean and northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Of interest are the interrelations between terrestrial, inter tidal, and marine components and the complex interactions of plants and animals within and between components. In addition a major aspect of the network is to study the effects of social and cultural constraints on management, i.e. differences in conservation approaches. The following is a list of issues or questions of the workshop:

· Effects of Global Climate Change
·
Spatial and temporal scales
·
Objectives of management
·
Ecological scales
·
Consider small islands

o Typology
o
Function of protection

· Human impacts

o Direct
o
Indirect

· Invasive species impacts

o Proportion of community composition
o
Native
o
Alien

· Catastrophic events

o Natural
o
Human induced

· Improving the knowledge of islet ecosystem function.
·
Scientific interest of islets for general knowledge
·
Assessment of conservation policies
·
Potential for conservation
·
Think in terms of scales, topology and management.
·
What are common elements of small island?
·
Should we take a process-oriented approach, nutrient flows?
·
Population approach? Do we select indicator species: if so, upon what basis?
·
What to measure?

Methods are available to measure many of the parameter identified below. The network plan will provide a synthesis of methods that will be applied to selected islands for the pilot project. Major categories include, climate, nutrients, contaminants, invasive species, plants, and animals. The following is a list of parameter the group developed as a starting point for refining methodologies.

· Physical factors:

o Meteorology: rain, wind, waves, temperature
o
Substrate (geology, soils)
o
Hydrology
o
Solar radiation
o
Geomorphology
o
Topography
o
Insularity
o
Tidal factors
o
Currents
o
Wave dynamics

· Biotic factors:

o Species interactions (inter and intra)
o
Population dynamics
o
Species-habitat interactions
o
Colonization/Extinction

· Historic and current effects (uses, resource extraction or exploitation, restoration)

o Anthropogenic factors
o
Direct and indirect effects (visitation)
o
Management Objectives (Social and cultural influences), Conservation

· Scale

· Time Ecological dimension

The group moved on to list the important long term monitoring and associated management issues. There are recurring themes in this approach of brainstorming where the team needs to go. A synthesis is required in the network plan to refine the list and flesh out the issues.

· Conservation of biotic resources - scale, time and space, of Long Term Monitoring (LTM) Scale will be a function of the management question and the level of precision necessary to address the question.
·
Reference - | t < 100 years | is this valid?

o Replace the problem within a larger geographical area

· Integration in/with natural processes
·
Assessment of the dynamics - to capture and understand the limits of natural variation
·
Identification of problems -Diagnostic - pilot studies, know the trends,
·
LTM needs
·
Habitat modification - (e.g. water quality)
·
Problems: Destruction

o Regression
o
Change
o
Dynamic

· Use patterns
·
Human - Visitation,

o Resource utilization - fishing
o
Monitoring impacts - the impacts of observation

· Animal - impacts to other resources
·
Laws - constraints for managers
·
Continuity and relevancy to Agency goals
·
Social and Economic Context
·
Cost and Time - constraints
·
Education - a form of prevention, protection, or stewardship, need to explain the relationships and roles of alien species and genetic loss.

Examples:

· Invasive species (introduced, exotic, destabilizing, the result of human intervention or introduction) - impact to native species and habitats
·
Not always a problem because islands are subject to colonization. Complex interrelations among the various elements
·
Crepidula was introduced to Europe, spread after 2nd World War came into Bay of Brest by 1950. Nitrate influx from agricultural caused blooms of diatoms and Crepidula filters the water in the absence of other filter feeders.
·
Carpobrotus (I)
·
Rattus sp. (I)
·
Caulerpa taxifolis (I)
·
Larus (n)
·
Rabbits - Oryctlagus (I)
·
Nitrophilous species (n)

Monitoring:

· Without intervention
·
After intervention (eradication, limitation)
·
Before invasion (reference sites, controls)
·
Invaded sites (no intervention)
·
Treated sites (after removal with appropriate controls)

Protocols:

· What to measure, at species or trophic level and interactions/process among them:

o Distribution
o
Abundance
o
Processes

· How to measure, what techniques to be used:

o Aerial photography
o
Surveys
o
Transects

Actions must follow the "precaution principle," that is the method of least impact. If action is taken in the short term, then the monitoring must be framed in terms of "Adaptive Management." It is necessary to review previous management actions including literature review. Also, must know long-term patterns of natural variation including historical perspective. (Note: This may not be known and only obtainable though a long term monitoring program) Monitoring serves two purposes, (a) contributes to general knowledge "Baseline Monitoring" and (b) contributes to the understanding of management issues "Adaptive Management." These actions are different from surveys that provide a catalogue of natural resource. Measurement of success of the monitoring program is a function of the meeting the management objective and underlying goals. The following examples (Tables 1, 2, and 3) point to specific problems but illustrate general concepts that are required in the development and application of a long term monitoring programs for small islands.

In closing monitoring is driven by five interests, (1) management objective, (2) management problem, (3) identified disturbance, (4) expectation of change, and (5) scientific interest. A monitoring program should identify the issues and priority elements to monitor, such as endangered species (Red list), keystone species, or total ecosystem approach. Data should come from sources on the island, around the island, collected by the scientist or supporting agencies.

Table 1. Framework for monitoring Carpobrotus of small marine islands (islets).

Management Issues

 

Comments

Methods

Time Frame

Invasive Species

       

Before invasion

Role of Buffer

Aerial photography

2-3 years

   

Survey

1 year

   

Transect

Monthly /Quarterly

   

Plots

Monthly /Quarterly

Invaded (no intervention)

Population dynamics

   

   

Survey

1 year

   

Transect

Monthly /Quarterly

   

Plots

Monthly /Quarterly

Treatment

     

   

Survey

1 year

   

Transect

Monthly /Quarterly

   

Plots

Monthly /Quarterly

Table 2. Framework for monitoring inter-specific relations of seabirds and vegetation for endangered species protection on small marine islands (islets).

Management Issues

 

Comments Management interests

Methods

Time Frame

Endangered species preservation

 

Seabird/plant interactions

   

Larus audouini

Anthropogenic/ Direct human impact - uses and activities on and around the site

Capture range of human activity. Frequency of use, duration, intensity (e.g. Trampling)

 

Endangered species

Population dynamics

Nest surveys or sampling

During breeding season - 4 to 5 years?

 

Competition

Survey

1 year

 

Diet

Transect

Monthly /Quarterly

   

Plots

Monthly /Quarterly

Larus cachinnans Herring gull

Anthropogenic Indirect Human impacts, Feeding on the mainland/garbage Fishing practices

   

 

Population dynamics

Nest surveys or sampling

During breeding season

 

Competition

Survey

1 year

 

Migration

Transect

Monthly /Quarterly

 

Diet

   

 

Predation on L. a. chicks

Plots

Monthly /Quarterly

Rabbits

Habitat modification

Vegetation sampling

 

Rats

Predation

   

Vegetation

Conservation of vegetation/habitat for other species

   

 

Habitat selection by species of interest.

 

Seasonally

 

Soil features

Survey

1 year

 

Vegetation dynamics

Transect

Monthly /Quarterly

   

Plots

Monthly /Quarterly

 

Lack of knowledge - basic species biology

 

Case 2: Study every year until understanding range of natural variation.

 

External perturbations

   

Data Analysis

GIS applications Landscape modeling Statistical modeling (multivariate - nonlinear) Systems modeling

   

 

Table 3. Framework for baseline monitoring on the islands selected for the long term monitoring.

HABITAT

BASELINE MONITORING

SURVEY

COST/Intervals

Observation Descriptive data Long term Guaranteed budget

Surveillance Analyses Short to medium term Specific budget

Must be included in the planning process

Goals:

Capture range of natural variation Provide global knowledge without a priori hypotheses Detect change Global trends Rare events Evaluate impacts of catastrophic events, ecological impacts, mitigation Report

Specific evaluation Short term change Management action efficiency Provide specific knowledge with a priori hypotheses Processes related to identified disturbances

MA are new limited protocols in place but no personnel, early surveys done but no monitoring, new since 1992

A. Terrestrial

 

PT beginning surveys to know what they have, 20 years old

 

Abiotic

     

Temperature Precipitation Wind Insolation Isolation

   

$1000/yr Daily 130 m from shore

Vegetation

     

Dynamics - Density each plant GPS'ed to ~ 1m, IC species reintroduction SA endanger plant, Centaure horrida, Astragalus massiliensis MA impacts of gull on the vegetation, bare soil PT 5 endemic plants

 

Mapping of vegetation at 5 year intervals/1:2000 aerial photo Inventory rare plants each year. Undertaken because of bird use Very few critical locations, remainder of island early succession.

Animals

     

White burros (SA) Domestic sheep Rabbits

Burros avoid spinose habitat Feral PT Unknown effects

Case of albinism?

Left over from prison period

Bird (Sp.)

Breeding success (n chicks) IC Larus sp., Falco, CC Cormorant, allouette, and L. audouin breeding success Colonies changing location from island to island in the region Petrel and Shearwaters (Lavi) MA Degradation of the colony, individuals are on the islands but little? Production, need rat control

Competition for space potential between species of Larus

1 year IC bird census 1 year, banding 1 year banding national color bands SA Larus sp. Are well studied MA trapping rats to estimate density

Number of pairs/nests

 

Daily

Breeding phenology

   

Stomach contents

   

Reptiles

PT set aside for protection

   

     

Human Impacts

Visitation IC on Beaches Visitation not permitted on CC No swimming within 15 m CC PT Camping but localized

 

1992 - Lavi ship wreck 1984 - CC ship wreck SA Fire destroyed much of habitat

B. Inter tidal

   

3 times per year

Abiotic

     

Wave climate Temperature Salinity Dissolved oxygen Shoreline

Beach profiles Water quality Photo survey/oil spots

 

Every 2 weeks

Vegetation

Dinoflagellates Chlorophyll

 

State Health Service

Algae species

Density at higher and lower limit

 

30/50 cm plots with 50 points 31 randomly selected. 21 permanent plots 21 random plots

Animals

     

Invertebrates

   

5 Permanent 20 m transects with 1m2 plots sampled along the transect

C. Marine

 

PT no surveys of this environment

Every 3 years

Abiotic

     

Current patterns Temperature (Lavi) Salinity Dissolved oxygen Chlorophyll Turbidity

   

$180,000/yr for one buoy Daily PT only goes to 30 m

Vegetation

     

Algae species

Density at higher and lower limit

 

30/50 cm plots with 50 points 31 randomly selected. 21 permanent plots 21 random plots

Posidonia bed (Lavi)

Lower limit SA preservation of beds Density (shoots / 30 m2) Propagation of individuals

Need biomass and production of the beds

Every 5-10 years for 23 years Classes of density determined 5 - 10 years (Survey?)

     

Animals

     

Invertebrates

   

5 Permanent 20 m transects with 1m2 plots sampled along the transect

Fish

Visual census Trammel net Long line Effort, Catch/Size class, fish crustaceans, gastropods, Production

1 year Reserve and club divers 5 year 24 hours CPUE Use fishermen, lunar cycle, temperature, salmonidae, Cancer magester IC Fishing permitted

Grouper

Breeding area N of population Age structure Map territories

 

1 year

Marine mammals

Visual survey

   

Human disturbance

Anchor disturbance (CC) Mortality (Patina) (Lavi) Fisheries PT Fishing localized in the area for 5 months out of the year, traditional activity

Study local visitation and trampling

1year 5 years

Abbreviations in the table:

IC: Islas Columbretes - marine traffic control
CC: Cap Corse, Isole di Finocc Miarola Protection the populations of Larus
SA: Sardinia
MA: Marseille
PT : Portugal

Note: It is absolutely necessary to follow statistical sampling procedures: stratification, randomization to obtain comparable results. Differentiate monitoring with existing methodology versus methodology development.

PARTICIPANTS

Participants Workshop Lavezzi RNF 11/99

   

Name

Organiatiom

ARRIGHI, F.

PNRC

BIORET, F.

RNF

CAMOIN, A.

RNF-Rn Finochiarolla

CULIOLI, J.-M.

RNF-OEC-Rn Bouches de Bonifacio

DELAUGERRE, M.

AGENC-Rn Finochiarolla

DRAPPER, D.

Botanic en Lisboa

FABREGAT, C.

Med/Columbretes

FRISONI, GF.

RNF-OEC-Rn Bouches de Bonifacio

GOURMELON, F.

Atlantic/ France

HOTHEM, R.

USGS-WERC

HOWELL, J.

USGS-WERC

JEAN, F.

Atlantic/ France

MANTE, A.

CEEP-Riou

PALLA, D.

Med./Sardinia

PARADIS, G.

Univ Corse

THIBAULT, JC.

PNRC

UEBER, E.

US National Marine Fisheries Service

The group agreed to establish e-mail discussion groups to work on methodologies for the different ecosystem components. For further information please contact us:

Frederic.Bioret@univ-brest.fr and Judd_Howell@usgs.gov

Bibliography (a completer)

Conant, F., P. Rogers, M. Baumgardner, C. McKell, and R. Dasmann. 1983. Introduction and synthesis. pp 1-54 in F. Conant, P. Rogers, M. Baumgardner, C. McKell, R. Dasmann, and P. Reining, eds. Resource inventory and monitoring for developing countries. American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science. Washington, DC. 539 pp.

Gibbs, J.P., H.L. Snell, and C.E. Causton. 1999. Effective monitoring for adaptive wildlife management: lessons from the Galapagos Islands. J. Wildl. Manage. 63 (4): 1055-1065.


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