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Accession Number 5001779

Title Technical assistance to the Fish and Wildlife Service on alternative shot

Project Description Coincident with the prohibition of toxic lead shot for the hunting waterfowl and coots in the U.S.,

procedures for registration of candidate nontoxic shot were instituted (50 CFR Part 20, section

20.134; 1986). These test guidelines focused on determining whether unintentional ingestion of the

candidate shot or shot coating posed a significant hazard to waterfowl compared to lead and

steel shot. Over the past decade, the safety of several candidate shot (e.g., bismuth, tungsten)

and shot coatings (e.g., zinc, tin) have been evaluated. Unfortunately, the original registration

guidelines do not address potential toxic effects of candidate materials on biota other than

waterfowl (e.g., invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals), or their supporting habitats.

Accordingly, a new tiered testing protocol (FR vol. 62 no. 230 63607-63615), with a much broader

ecological perspective, was developed and has been implemented. This new protocol for

evaluation of candidate materials utilizes an ecological risk assessment approach. It is

scientifically more robust and also less burdensome for those attempting to develop and register

nontoxic shot. Attempts are underway to harmonize these new testing guidelines internationally.

Keywords harvest, nontoxic shot, risk assessment,

Principal Barnett A Rattner, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center:;


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