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Accession Number 5003442

Title Comparative developmental toxicity assessment of a mosquito larvicide (GB- 1111) on

bird eggs

Project Description GB-1111 (Golden Bear Oil) is used extensively as a larvicide by California Mosquito Abatement

Districts (MAD) and it has been recommended by MAD for use on National Wildlife Refuges as a

component of an integrated pest control formula for mosquito suppression. GB-1111 is a

petroleum distillate that is used as a last-resort larvicide when the larvae pupate before mosquito

abatement personnel can treat the site with other materials. There are few published studies of the

non-target effects of GB-1111 and the product label warns that GB-1111 is toxic to fish and other

aquatic organisms. Since the avian embryo is contained in a virtually closed system, it is

subjected to a situation environmentally similar to a fish in a small pond, with only limited

recourse to protect itself from exposure to xenobiotics including petroleum compounds,

pesticides, and industrial effluents. Certain chemicals that have been toxic to fish have also proven

to be quite toxic to bird embryos. Albers and Heinz (1983) previously reported on a petroleum

derived mosquito larvicide, FLIT-MLO (a straight-chain or branched alkane product), that was toxic

to mallard embryos when applied externally to eggs at three times the maximum recommended

application rate. GB-1111 is a cycloalkane product, hence toxicity of the hydrocarbons should be

greater than those of FLIT-MLO. Therefore, this study is designed to evaluate the potential

embryotoxicity of this product when applied externally to three species of bird eggs, including

bobwhite, mallards , and red-winged blackbirds. This evaluation is being done in conjunction with

field evaluations (A.K. Miles, BRD) examining effects on invertebrate food base, ducklings, and

resident species.

Keywords bird eggs, contaminants, embryotoxicity, gb-1111, hydrocarbons, mosquito larvicide, national

wildlife refuge, reproduction, san francisco bay, toxicity,

Principal David J Hoffman, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: david_hoffman@usgs.gov; Peter H

Investigators Albers, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center: pete_albers@usgs.gov; Keith A Miles,

California Science Center: keith_miles@usgs.gov;

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