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|Streamside Salamander Survey Methods|
TABLE 1: Compendium of survey methods used to quantify streamside salamanders in and/or alongside streams in North America. Most surveys conducted within stream channels utilized dip nets. This compilation does not present terrestrial breeding salamanders since their presence was incidental in most cases.
* = incidental
Bruce, R. C. 1986. Upstream and downstream movements of Eurycea bislineata and other salamanders in a southern Appalachian stream. Herpetologica 42:149-155.
Bruce, R. C. 1995. The use of temporary removal sampling in a study of population dynamics of the salamander Desmognathus monticola. Australian Journal of Ecology 20:403-412.
Burton, T. M., and G. E. Likens. 1975. Salamander populations and biomass in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. Copeia 1975:541-546.
Bury, R. P., and P. S. Corn. 1991. Sampling Methods for Amphibians in Streams in the Pacific Northwest. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-275. Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
Chalmers, R. J., and S. Droege. 2002. Leaf litter bags as an index to populations of northern two-lined salamanders (Eurycea bislineata). Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:71-74.
Cook, K. L., R. E. Jung, S. Droege, J. R. Sauer, J. C. Mitchell, M. Crossland, C. J. Leary, M. Larson, and E. Chattin. In prep. Comparison of quantitative methods to survey streamside salamanders in Blue Ridge mountain streams. To be submitted to Herpetologica.
Corn, P. S., and R. P. Bury. 1989. Logging in western Oregon: responses of headwater habitats and stream amphibians. Forest Ecology and Management 29:39-57.
Davic, R.D. 1983. An investigation of salamander guild predation in a North Carolina stream: an experimental approach. Dissertation. Kent State University. 237 pp.
Davic, R. D., and L. P. Orr. 1987. The relationship between rock density and salamander density in a mountain stream. Herpetologica 43:357-361.
Forester, D. C. 1977. Comments on the female reproductive cycle and philopatry by Desmognathus ochrophaeus (Amphibia, Urodela, Plethodontidae). Journal of Herpetology 11:331-316.
Gore, J. A. 1983. The distribution of Desmognathine larvae (Amphibia: Plethodontidae) in coal surface mine impacted streams of the Cumberland Plateau, USA. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 2:13-23.
Hairston, N. G., Sr. 1986. Species packing in Desmognathus salamanders: experimental demonstration of predation and competition. The American Naturalist 127:266-291.
Harper, C. A., and D. C. Guynn, Jr. 1999. Factors affecting salamander density and distribution in four forest types in the southern Appalachian mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 114:245-252.
Hawkins, C. P., M. L. Murphy, N. H. Anderson, and M. A. Wilzbach. 1983. Density of fish and salamanders in relation to riparian canopy and physical habitat in streams of the northwestern United States. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 40:1173-1185.
Hom, C. L. 1988. Cover object choice by female dusky salamanders, Desmognathus fuscus. Journal of Herpetology 22:247-249.
Jung, R. E., S. Droege, J. R. Sauer, and R. B. Landy. 2000. Evaluation of terrestrial and streamside salamander monitoring techniques at Shenandoah National Park. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 63:65-79.
Kleeberger, S. R. 1984. A test of competition in two sympatric populations of Desmognathine salamanders. Ecology 65:1846-1856.
Krzysik, A. J. 1979. Resource allocation, coexistence, and the niche structure of a streambank salamander community. Ecological Monographs 49:173-194.
Kucken, D. J., J. S. Davis, J. W. Petranka, and C. K. Smith. 1994. Anakeesta stream acidification and metal contamination: effects on a salamander community. Journal of Environmental Quality 23:1311-1317.
Lowe, W. H., and D. T. Bolger. 2002. Local and landscape-scale predictions of salamander abundance in New Hampshire headwater streams. Conservation Biology 16:183-193
Metts, B. S., J. D. Lanham, and K. R. Russell. 2001. Evaluation of herpetofaunal communities on upland streams and beaver-impounded streams in the upper piedmont of South Carolina. American Midland Naturalist 145:54-65.
Mitchell, J. C. 1998. Amphibian Decline in the Mid-Atlantic region: Monitoring and Management of a Sensitive resource. Final Report, Legacy Resource Management Program, U.S. Department of Defense, Alexandria, VA.
Mitchell, J. C. 1999. Amphibian diversity in three montane streams with different levels of acidity, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia. Banisteria 14:28-35.
Murphy, M. L., and J. D. Hall. 1981. Varied effects of clear-cut logging on predators and their habitat in small streams of the Cascade Mountains, Oregon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:137-145.
Ohio EPA. 2001. Field evaluation manual for Ohio's primary headwater habitat streams. Ohio EPA, Division of Surface Water, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A.
Orser, P. N. and D. J. Shure. 1972. Effects of urbanization on the salamander Desmognathus fuscus fuscus. Ecology 53:1148-1154.
Orser, P. N., and D. J. Shure. 1975. Population cycles and activity patterns of the dusky salamander, Desmognathus fuscus fuscus. The American Midland Naturalist 93:403-410.
Parker, M. S. 1991. Relationship between cover availability and larval Pacific giant salamander density. Journal of Herpetology 25:335-357.
Pauley, T. K., and M. Little. 1998. A new technique to monitor larval and juvenile salamanders in stream habitats. Banisteria 12:32-36.
Resetarits, W. J., Jr. 1997. Differences in an ensemble of streamside salamanders (Plethodontidae) above and below a barrier to brook trout. Amphibia-Reptilia 18:15-25.
Rocco, G. L. and R. P. Brooks. 2000. Abundance and Distribution of a Stream Plethodontid Salamander Assemblage in 14 Ecologically Dissimilar Watersheds in the Pennsylvania Central Appalachians. Final Report. Report No. 2000-4. Penn State Cooperative.
Southerland, M. T., R. E. Jung, J. Vølstad, D. Baxter, G. Mercurio, and I. C. Chellman. In prep. Streamside salamanders as indicators of stream quality in Maryland. To be submitted to Ecological Applications.
Stewart, G. D., and E. D. Bellis. 1970. Dispersion patterns of salamanders along a brook. Copeia 1970:86-89.
Waters, J.R., C. J. Zabel, K. S. McKelvey, and H. H. Welsh, Jr. 2001. Vegetation patterns and abundances in amphibians and small mammals along small streams in a Northwestern California watershed. Northwest Science 75:37-52.
Welsh, H. H., Jr. 1987. Monitoring herpetofauna in woodland habitats of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon: A comprehensive strategy. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-100. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Berkeley, California, U.S.A.
Welsh, H. H., Jr. 1990. Relictual amphibians and old-growth forests. Conservation Biology 4:309-319.
Welsh, H. H., Jr., and L. M. Ollivier. 1998. Stream amphibians as indicators of ecosystem stress: A case study from California's Redwoods. Ecological Applications 8:1118-1132.
Welsh, H. H., Jr., L. M. Ollivier, and D. G. Hankin. 1997. A habitat-based design for sampling and monitoring stream amphibians with an illustration from Redwood National Park. Northwest Naturalist 78:1-16.
Welsh, H. H., Jr., and G. R. Hodgson. 1997. A hierarchical strategy for sampling herpetofaunal assemblages along small streams in the western U.S., with an example from northern California. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 33:56-66.
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