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PROMOTING WILDNESS IN SANDHILL CRANES CONDITIONED TO FOLLOW 
AN ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT 

JOSEPH W. DUFF, Operation Migration, p. O. Box 280, Blackstock, ON LOB 1B0, Canada 

WII.LIAM A. LISHMAN, Operation Migration, p. O. Box 280, Blackstock, ON LOB 1B0, Canada 

DEWITT A. CLARK, Operation Migration, P. O. Box 280, Blackstock, ON LOB 1B0, Canada 

GEORGE F. GEE, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 12011 Beech Forest Road, Laurel, MD 20708-4041, USA

 DANIEL T. SPRAGUE, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11510 American Holly Drive, Laurel, MD 20708-4019, USA 

DAVID H. ELLIS, USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 11410 American Holly Drive, Laurel, MD 20708-4019, USA

During the 1998 field season, we developed and tested a new protocol to teach sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to follow ultralight aircraft yet avoid humans. Although successful in teaching the cranes a migration route, our previous migration (1997) resulted in birds that were overly tame and sought association with humans. For this study, 16 sandhill cranes were costume-reared at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and transported to Ontario shortly before fledging. After the birds learned to follow the aircraft, 14 were transported to an isolated wintering site in South Carolina, 1300 km south of the training area. Twelve arrived safely. Eleven of 12 birds survived the winter. All of these 11 cranes moved north to Cape Hatteras in early May. Thereafter, 6 of the cranes were captured and translocated to northern New York state. The remaining 5 returned to South Carolina, autumn 1999. Prior to capture, although the cranes sometimes allowed humans to approach them, none of the cranes approached buildings or humans. 

PROCEEDINGS NORTH AMERICAN CRANE WORKSHOP 8:115-121 

Key words: human avoidance, migration, sandhill crane, ultralight aircraft, whooping crane, wild behavior.

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