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Contaminant Exposure Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates

Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific, Alaskan, and Hawaiian Coasts and the Great Lakes

Published Sources

Additional Sources

In most cases, the "abstract" links below will take you to the abstract posted by the publisher or other aggregator service, such as BioOne or JSTOR. The abstract page will have a link to the PDF or html full text. If the source is "open access" or if your institution has a subscription, you will be able to click the link and open the full text. This list is sorted by senior author name, then by year.

Published Sources


Ackerman, J.T., C.A. Eagles-Smith, J.Y. Takekawa, S.A. Demers, T.L. Adelsbach, J.D. Bluso, A.K. Miles, N. Warnock, T, H. Suchanek and S.E. Schwarzbach. 2007. Mercury concentrations and space use of pre-breeding American avocets and black-necked stilts in San Francisco Bay. Science of the Total Environment 384(1-3):452-466. abstract

Ackerman, J.T., J.Y. Takekawa, C.A. Eagles-Smith and S.A. Iverson. 2008. Mercury contamination and effects on survival of American avocet and black-necked stilt chicks in San Francisco Bay. Ecotoxicology 17(2):103-116. abstract

Ackerman, J.T., C.A. Eagles-Smith, J.Y. Takekawa, J.D. Bluso and T.L. Adelsbach. 2008. Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of prebreeding Forster's Terns in relation to space use of San Francisco Bay, California, USA, habitats. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 27(4):897-908. abstract

Ackerman, J.T., C.A. Eagles-Smith, J.Y. Takekawa and S.A. Iverson. 2008. Survival of postfledging Forster’s terns in relation to mercury exposure in San Francisco Bay. Ecotoxicology 17(8):789-801. abstract

Ackerman, J. T. and C. A. Eagles-Smith. 2009. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28(10):2134-2141. abstract

Alam, S.K. and Brim M.S. 2000. Organochlorine, PCB, PAH, and metal concentrations in eggs of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) from northwest Florida, USA. Journal of Environmental Science and Health B 35:705-724. abstract

Alava, J.J., J.M. Keller, J.R. Kucklick, J. Wyneken, L. Crowder and G.I. Scott. 2006. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic polluntants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development. Science of the Total Environment 367:170-181. abstract

Albers, P.H., L. Sileo, and B.M. Mulhern. 1986. Effects of environmental contaminants on snapping turtles of a tidal wetland. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 15:39-49. abstract

Albers, P.H. and R.M. Prouty. 1987. Survival of spotted salamander eggs in temporary woodland ponds of coastal Maryland. Environmental Pollution 46:45-61.abstract

Albrecht, J., M. Abalos and T.M. Rice. 2007. Heavy metal levels in Ribbon snakes (Thamnophis sauritus) and anuran larvae from the Mobile-Tensaw River Delta, Alabama, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53:647-654. abstract

Anas, R.E. and A.J. Wilson. 1970. Organochlorine pesticides in fur seals. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 3:198-200. abstract

Anas, R.E. and A.J. Wilson. 1970. Organochlorine pesticides in nursing fur seal pups. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 4: 114-116. abstract

Anas, R.E. 1974. DDT Plus PCB's in Blubber of Harbor Seals. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 8: 12-14. abstract

Anas, R.E. 1974. Heavy Metals in the Northern Fur Seal, Callorhinus ursinus, and Harbor Seal, Phoca vitullina richardi. Fishery Bulletin 72:133-137. PDF

Anderlini, V.C., P.G. Conners, R.W. Risebrough and J.H. Martin. 1972. Concentrations of heavy metals in some Antarctic and North American sea birds. Pages 49-61 in Bruce C. Parker, editor. Proceedings of the Colloquium on Conservation Problems in Antarctica. [Blacksburg, Va., Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University]. viii, 356 pp.

Anderson, D.W. and J.J. Hickey. 1970. Oological data on egg and breeding characteristics of brown pelicans. Wilson Bulletin 82:14-28.PDF

Anderson, D.W. and J.J. Hickey. 1972. Eggshell changes in certain North American birds. Pages 514-540 in K. H. Voous, editor. Proceedings of the XVth International Ornithological Congress, The Hague, Netherlands 30 August-5 September 1970. E. J. Brill, Leiden. viii, 745 pp.

Anderson, D.W., J.R. Jehl, R.W. Risebrough, L.A. Woods, L.R. DeWeese and W.G. Edgecomb. 1975. Brown pelicans: improved reproduction off the southern California coast. Science 190(4216):806-808. abstract

Anderson, D.W., R.M. Jurek and J.O. Keith. 1977. The status of Brown pelicans at Anacapa Island in 1975. California Fish and Game 63:4-10.

Anderson, D. W., T. H. Suchanek, C. A. Eagles-Smith, and T. M. Cahill. 2008. Mercury residues and productivity in osprey and grebes from a mine-dominated ecosystem. Ecological Applications 18(8):A227-A238. abstract

Anderson, J.F. and W. Glowa. 1985. Diazinon poisoning of brown-headed cowbirds. Journal of Field Ornithology 56:407-408. PDF

Anderson, W.L., S.P. Havera and R.A. Montgomery. 1987. Incidence of ingested shot in waterfowl in the Mississippi Flyway, 1977-1979. Wildlife Society Bulletin 15:181-188. abstract

Anderson, W.L., S.P Havera and B.W. Zercher. 2000. Ingestion of lead and nontoxic shotgun pellets by ducks in the Mississippi Flyway. Journal of Wildlife Management 64:848-857. abstract

Anderson-Bledsoe, K.L. and P.F. Scanlon. 1983. Heavy metal concentrations in tissues of Virginia river otters. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 30:442-447. abstract

Andres, B.A. 1994. The effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on black oystercatchers breeding in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill State/Federal Natural Resource Damage Assessment Final Report. Bird Study Number 12/Restoration Study Number 17.

Ankley, G.T., G.J. Niemi, K.B. Lodge, H.J. Harris, D.L. Beaver, D.E. Tillitt, T.R. Schwartz, J.P. Giesy, P.D. Jones and C. Hagley. 1993. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 24:332-344. abstract

Anthony, R.G., M.G. Garrett and C.A. Schuler. 1993. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary. Journal of Wildlife Management 57:10-19. abstract

Anthony, R.G., A.K. Miles, J.A. Estes and F.B. Isaacs. 1999. Productivity, diets, and environmental contaminants in nesting bald eagles from the Aleutian Archipelago. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:2054-2062. abstract

Anthony, R.G., A.K. Miles, M.A. Ricca and J.A. Estes. 2007. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Aleutian archipelago. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26:1843-1855. abstract

Arighi, L.S. 1973. Mercury level studies in Migratory Waterfowl. Pages 167-171 in Donald R. Buhler editor. Mercury in the western environment: proceedings of a workshop, Portland, Oregon, February 25-26, 1971, sponsored by Environmental Health Sciences Center, Oregon State University. Continuing Education Publications, Corvallis, 1973. x, 360 pp.

Arndt, D.P. 1973. DDT and PCB levels in three Washington State harbor seal (Phoca vitulina richardii) populations. M.S. Thesis, University of Washington, Seattle. 65 leaves.

Artmann, J.W. and E.M. Martin. 1975. Incidence of ingested lead shot in sora rails. Journal of Wildlife Management 39:514-519.

Ashpole, S.L., C.A. Bishop and R.J. Brooks. 2004. Contaminant residues in snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentine) eggs from the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin (1999-2000). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 47:240-252. abstract

Audet, D.J., D.S. Scott and S.N. Wiemeyer. 1992. Organochlorines and mercury in osprey eggs from the Eastern United States. Journal of Raptor Research 26:219-224. PDF

Augspurger, T. and K. Looney. 1995. Mercury in Lake Mattamuskeet osprey and largemouth bass, Mattamuskeet National Wildlife Refuge, Hyde County, North Carolina. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 19 pp. abstract

Augspurger, T., J. Holloman and M. Canada. 1996. Productivity and contaminant assessment of ospreys from Western Albemarle Sound, North Carolina (USA). Poster No. P0947. Abstract book, Annual meeting of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:296. abstract

Augspurger, T., J.C. Franson, K.A. Converse, P.R. Spitzer and E.A. Miller. 1998. An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:205-209. abstract

Augspurger, T.P., K.R. Echols, P.H. Peterman, T.W. May, C.E. Orazio, D.E. Tillitt and R.T. Di Giulio. 2008. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55(4):670-682. abstract

Auman, H.J., J.P. Ludwig, C. Summer, D.A. Verbrugge, K.L. Froese, T.L. Colborn, T.L. and J.P. Giesy. 1997. PCBs, DDE, DDT, and TCDD-EQ in two species of albatross on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 16:498-504. abstract

Bacon, C.E., W.M. Jarman and J.P. Costa. 1992. Organochlorine and polychlorinated biphenyl levels in pinniped milk from the Arctic, the Antarctic, California and Australia. Chemosphere 24:779-791. abstract

Bacon, C.E., W.M. Jarman, J.A. Estes, M. Simon and R.J. Norstrom. 1999. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:452-458. abstract

Bagley, G.E., L.N. Locke and G.T. Nightingale. 1967. Lead poisoning in Canada geese in Delaware. Avian Diseases 11:601-608. abstract

Bailey, E.P. and G.H. Davenport. 1972. Die-off of common murres on the Alaska Peninsula and Unimak Island. Condor 74:215-219. PDF

Baker, B.E., C.H. Neilson and E.R. Samuels. 1970. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in human and other milks collected in Alaska. Journal of Dairy Science 53:241-244. PDF

Baker F.D., C.F. Tumasonis., W.B. Stone and B. Bush. 1976. Levels of PCB and trace metals in waterfowl in New York State. New York Fish and Game Journal 23:82-91.

Baker, J.L. and R.L. Thompson. 1978. Shot ingestion by waterfowl on National Wildlife Refuges in Florida. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association Fish and Wildlife Agencies 32:256-262. abstract

Balcomb, R. 1983. Secondary poisoning of red-shouldered hawks with carbofuran. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:1129-1132. abstract

Ballachey, B. 1995. Biomarkers of damage to sea otters in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following potential exposure to oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment study final report. Marine Mammal Study 6-1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Anchorage. 15 pp. PDF

Ballachey, B.E., D.L. Bruden and K.A. Kloecker. 1996. Hematology and clinical chemistry of sea otters captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment study final report. Marine Mammal Study 6-17. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Anchorage. 14 pp.

Ballachey, B.E. and K.A. Kloecker. 1997. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected from southeast Alaska. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment study final report. Marine Mammal Study 6-2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Anchorage. 20 pp.

Ballachey, B. and K.A. Kloecker. 1997. Hydrocarbon residues in tissues of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) collected following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment study final report. Marine Mammal Study 6-16. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Anchorage. 62 pp. abstract

Ballachey, B.E. and K.A. Kloecker. 1997. Hydrocarbons in hair, livers and intestines of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the path of the Exxon Valdez spill. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment study final report. Marine Mammal Study 6-3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Fish and Wildlife Research Center, Anchorage. PDF

Ballard, W.B., M.A. Cronin, M.D. Robards and W.A. Stubblefield. 2003. Heavy metal concentrations in arctic foxes, Alopex lagopus, in the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 117:119-121.

Bank, M.S., C.S. Loftin and R.E. Jung. 2005. Mercury bioaccumulation in northern two-lined salamanders from streams in the northeastern United States. Ecotoxicology 14:181-191. abstract

Bank, M.S., J. Crocker, B. Connery and A. Amirbahman. 2007. Mercury bioaccumulation in green frog (Rana clamitans) and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) tadpoles from Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 26:118-125. abstract

Barclay, J.S. and J.M. Zingo. 1993. Winter scaup populations in Connecticut coastal waters. Connecticut Warbler 13:136-150.

Barclay, J.S., C.R. Perkins, M.E. Tomassone and K.A. Eccleston. 1995. Declining populations of ducks and influenced by habitat quality in Long Island Sound. Final Report. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. 171 pp.

Baskaran, M., G.-H. Hong, S. Dayton, J.L. Bodkin and J.J. Kelley. 2003. Temporal variations of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in sea otter skull tissue in the North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 64:1-18. abstract

Baskett, T.S. 1975. Mercury residues in breast muscle of wild ducks, 1970-71. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 9:67-78. abstract

Beckett, K.J., S.D. Millsap, A.L. Blankenship, M.J. Zwiernik, J.P. Giesy and S.J. Bursian. 2005. Squamous epithelial lesion of the mandibles and maxillae of wild mink (Mustela vison) naturally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 24:674-677. abstract

Beckman, K.B., G.M. Ylitalo, R.G. Towell, M.M. Krahn, T.M. O'Hara and J.E. Blake. 1999. Factors affecting organochlorine contaminant concentrations in milk and blood of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) dams and pups from St. George Island, Alaska. Science of the Total Environment 231:183-200. abstract

Beckman, K.B., L.K. Duffy, X. Zhang and K.W. Pitcher. 2002. Mercury concentrations in the fur of Steller sea lions and northern fur seals from Alaska. Marine Pollution Bulletin 44:1130-1135. abstract

Beeman, D.K., T.A. Augspurger and W.J. Fleming. 1993. Productivity and PCDDs/PCDFs in eggs from two great blue heron rookeries near a pulp and paper mill on the Roanoke River, North Carolina. Poster number P118 presented at the 14th annual meeting of the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), November 14-18, 1993, Houston, TX.

Beeman, D.K. and T. Augspurger. 1996. Dioxins and furans in wood duck eggs from the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina. Final Reports, Contaminants Study #94-4N38. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Raleigh, North Carolina. 27 pp. abstract

Belant, J.L. and R.K. Anderson. 1990. Environmental contaminants in common loons from northern Wisconsin. Passenger Pigeon 32:307-310. PDF

Bell, B., J.R. Spotila, and J. Congdon. 2006. High incidence of deformity in aquatic turtles in the John Heinz National Wildlfie Refuge. Environmental Pollution 142:457-465. abstract

Bell, D.E. 1969. Amchitka bioenvironmental program: pesticide residues in birds from Amchitka Island. BMI-171-121. Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio. 5 pp.

Bellrose, F.C. 1959. Lead poisoning as a mortality factor in waterfowl populations. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 27:235-288. e-book

Bench, G., T.M. Carlsen, P.G. Grant, J.S. Wollett, R.E. Martinelli, J.L. Lewis and K.K. Divine. 2001. Olfactory bulb uptake and determination of biotransfer factors in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) exposed to manganese and cadmium in environmental habitats. Environmental Science and Technology 35:270-277. abstract

Ben-David, M., L.K. Duffy, G.M. Blundell and R.T. Bowyer. 2001. Natural exposure of coastal river otters to mercury: Relation to age, diet, and survival. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20:1986-1992. abstract

Benkert, K. 1991. Assessment of organic and metal contaminants in lower Back Bay and upper Currituck Sound. In H.G. Marshall and M.D. Norman editors. Proceedings of the Back Bay Ecological Symposium, Virginia Beach, VA.: Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. v, 305 pp.

Benkert, K. 1992. Contaminant assessment of biota and sediments in the Albemarle-Pamlico region. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Raleigh Field Office, North Carolina. 57 pp. full text

Bentzen, T.W., E.H. Follmann, S.C. Amstrup, G.S. York, M.J. Wooller, D.C.G. Muir and T.M. O’Hara. 2008. Dietary biomagnification of organochlorine contaminants in Alaskan polar bears. 2008. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86(3):177-191. abstract

Bentzen,T.W., D.C.G. Muir, S.C. Amstrup and T.M. O'Hara. 2008. Organohalogen concentrations in blood and adipose tissue of Southern Beaufort Sea polar bears. Science of the Total Environment 406(1-2):352-367. abstract

Bernard, R.F. 1963. Studies on the Effects of DDT on Birds. Michigan State University, Publications of the Museum. Biological Series 2(3):160-191.

Bevenue, A., J.N. Ogata, L.S. Tengan and J.W. Hylin. 1975. Mirex residues in wildlife and soils, Hawaiian pineapple-growing areas. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 9:141-149. abstract

Beyer, W.N., G. Miller and J.W. Simmers. 1990. Trace elements in soil and biota in confined disposal facilities for dredged material. Environmental Pollution 65:19-32. abstract

Beyer, W.N., M. Spalding and D. Morrison. 1997. Mercury concentrations in feathers of wading birds from Florida. Ambio 26:97-100. abstract

Beyer, W.N., D. Day, A. Morton and Y. Pachepsky. 1998. Relation of lead exposure to sediment ingestion in mute swans on the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17:2298-22301. abstract

Birdsall, C.W., C.E. Grue and A. Anderson. 1986. Lead concentrations in bullfrog Rana catesbeiana and green frog R. clamitans tadpoles inhabiting highway drainages. Environmental Pollution (Series A) 40:233-247. abstract

Bishop, C.A., R.J. Brooks, J.H. Carey, P. Ng, R.J. Norstrom and D.R.S. Lean. 1991. The case for a cause-effect linkage between environmental contamination and development in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra s. serpentina) from Ontario, Canada. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 33:521-547. abstract

Bishop, C.A., D.V.C. Weseloh, N.M. Burgess, J. Struger, R.J. Norstrom, R. Turle and K.A. Logan. 1992. An atlas of contaminants in eggs of fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes (1970-1988). Technical Report Series 152 and 153. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa.

Bishop, C.A., G.P. Brown, R.J. Brooks, D.R.S. Lean and J.H. Carey. 1994. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in eggs and their relationship to body size, and clutch characteristics of the female common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) in Lake Ontario, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 27:82-87. abstract

Bishop, C.A., M.D. Koster, A.A. Chek, D.J.T. Hussell and K. Jock. 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments, red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from wetlands in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:491-501. abstract

Bishop, C.A., D.R.S. Lean, R.J. Brooks, J.H. Carey and P. Ng. 1995. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in early life stages of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from a coastal wetland on Lake Ontario, Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 14:421-426. abstract

Bishop, C.A., P. Ng, R.J. Norstrom, R.J. Brooks and K.E. Pettit. 1996. Temporal and geographic variation of organochlorine residues in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) (1981-1991) and comparisons to trends in the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in the Great Lakes Basin in Ontario, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 31:512-524. abstract

Bishop, C.A., P. Ng, K.E. Pettit, S.W. Kennedy, J.J. Stegeman, R.J. Norstrom and R.J. Brooks. 1998. Environmental contamination and developmental abnormalities in eggs and hatchlings of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin (1989-91). Environmental Pollution 101:143-156. abstract

Bishop, C.A. and A.D. Gendron. 1998. Reptiles and amphibians: Shy and sensitive vertebrates of the Great Lakes Basin and the St. Lawrence River. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 53:225-244. abstract

Bishop, C.A., N.A. Mahony, S. Trudeau and K.E. Pettit. 1999. Reproductive success and biochemical effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in wetlands of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin, USA and Canada. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18:263-271. abstract

Bishop, C.A. and J.D. Rouse. 2000. Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in plasma of the Lake Erie water snake (Nerodia sipedon insularum) and northern water snake (Nerodia sipedon sipedon) from the Great Lakes Basin in 1998. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39:500-505. abstract

Bishop, C.A. and J.D. Rouse. 2006. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma and embryonic development in Lake Erie Water Snakes (Nerodia sipedon insularum) from Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 51:452-457. abstract

Blasius, M.E. and G.D. Goodmanlowe. 2008. Contaminants still high in top-level carnivores in the Southern California Bight: Levels of DDT and PCBs in resident and transient pinnipeds. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56(12):1973-1982. abstract

Block, E. 1992. Contaminants in great blue heron eggs and nestlings from Dumas Bay and Nisqually heronries, Puget Sound, Washington. Report No. OFO-EC93-1, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, Olympia Field Office, Washington. 32 pp.

Bloom, P.H., J.M. Scott, O.H. Pattee and M.R. Smith. 1989. Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor. Pages 481-482 in B.U. Meyburg and R.D. Chancellor editors. Raptors in the Modern World, proceedings of the III World Conference on Birds of Prey and Owls, Eilat, Israel, 22-27 March 1987. World Working Group on Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin. 611 pp.

Blumton, A.K., J.D. Fraser, R.W. Young, S. Goodbred, S.L. Porter and D.L. Luukonen. 1990. Pesticide and PCB residues for loggerhead shrikes in the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, 1985-88. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 45:697-702. abstract

Blus, L.J. 1970. Measurements of brown pelican eggshells from Florida and South Carolina. BioScience 20:867-869. abstract

Blus, L.J., B. S. Neely, Jr., A. A. Belisle and R. M. Prouty. 1974. Organochlorine residues in brown pelican eggs: relation to reproductive success. Environmental Pollution. 7:81-91. abstract

Blus, L.J., A.A. Belisle and R.M. Prouty. 1974. Relations of the brown pelican to certain environmental pollutants. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 7:181-194. abstract

Blus, L.J., B.S. Neely, Jr., T.G. Lamont and B. Mulhern. 1977. Residues of organochlorines and heavy metals in tissues and eggs of brown pelicans, 1969-1973. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 11:40-53. abstract

Blus, L.J., L.N. Locke and C.J. Stafford. 1977. Ruptured-yolk peritonitis and organochlorine residues in a royal tern. Avian Diseases 21:445-447. abstract

Blus, L.J., E. Cromartie, L. McNease and T. Joanen. 1979. Brown pelican: population status, reproductive success, and organochlorine residues in Louisiana, 1971-1976. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 22:128-135. abstract

Blus, L.J., T.G. Lamont. and B.S. Neely, Jr. 1979. Effects of organochlorine residues on eggshell thickness, reproduction, and population status of brown pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) in South Carolina and Florida, 1969-76. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 12:172-184. abstract

Blus, L.J. and R.M. Prouty. 1979. Organochlorine pollutants and population status of least terns in South Carolina. Wilson Bulletin 91:62-71. PDF

Blus, L.J. and T.G. Lamont. 1979. Organochlorine residues in six species of estuarine birds, South Carolina, 1971-1975. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 13:56-60. abstract

Blus, L.J., R.M. Prouty and B.S. Neely, Jr. 1979. Relation of environmental factors to breeding status of royal and sandwich terns in South Carolina, USA. Biological Conservation 16:301-320. abstract

Blus, L.J. and C.J. Stafford. 1980. Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report--Wildlife 230. 18 pp. e-book

Blus, L.J., O.H. Pattee, C.J. Henny and R.M. Prouty. 1983. First records of chlordane related mortality in wild birds. Journal of Wildlife Management 47:196-198. abstract

Blus, L.J., C.J. Henny, A. Anderson and R.E. Fetzner. 1985. Reproduction, mortality, and heavy metal concentrations of great blue herons from three colonies in Washington and Idaho. Colonial Waterbirds 8:110-116. abstract

Blus, L.J., R.K. Stroud, B. Reiswig and T. Mceneaney. 1989. Lead poisoning and other mortality factors in trumpeter swans. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 8:263-271. abstract

Blus, L.J., R.E. Fitzner, L.L. Leschner and U.W. Wilson. 1999. DDE, PCBs, cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations rhinoceros auklets from Washington. Northwestern Naturalist 80:14-16. abstract

Boardman, C.J. 1988. Organochlorine pesticides in California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni). M.S. Thesis. California State University, Long Beach. 25 pp.

Boardman, C.J. and C.T. Collins. 1993. Lead in the feathers of the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni). Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 92:95-99.

Boersma, D.C., J.A. Ellenton and A. Yagminas. 1986. Investigation of the hepatic mixed-function oxidase system in herring gull embryos in relation to environmental contaminants. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 5:309-318. abstract

Borthwick, P.W., T.W. Duke, A.J. Wilson, Jr., J.I. Lowe, J.M. Patrick, Jr. and J.C. Oberheu. 1973. Accumulation and movement of mirex in selected estuaries of South Carolina, 1969-1971. Pesticides Monitoring Journal 7:6-26. abstract

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