USGS



BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES

Peregrine Falcon

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Biological Characteristics

Species

Falco peregrinus is a medium-sized raptor with a black crown and nape and a black wedge extending below the eye forming a distinctive “helmet”. Plumage varies by subspecies, but the long, pointed wings are commonly slate colored on the crown, back and upper surface. The throat is white and the under parts are white to buff, with blackish brown bars on the sides, thighs, abdomen, underwings, and lower breast area (Blood, 2001). The cere and eye-rings are bluish and the leg coloration varies from green to yellow. The beak is sharply hooked with a conspicuous notch located on the cutting edge. Typical of falcons, the female, which falconers call the “falcon”, is larger than the male, called the “tiercel”. Female Peregrines can weigh up to 1350 grams (46-54 cm long) and males up to 800 grams (38-46 cm long) (Ratcliffe, 1993). There are 22 recognized subspecies of the Peregrine falcon throughout the world.

Status in Estuaries

Habitats used by peregrines along migration routes and wintering areas include waterways, coastal bays, estuaries, marshlands, wetlands, barrier beaches, and offshore islands where waterfowl and shorebirds concentrate providing a prey base (Bollengier et al., 1979). Peregrine falcons build their nests on the ledges of high, steep and inaccessible cliffs by scratching with its feet a shallow bowl in a soily ledge or they may steal the unused nest of another cliff-nesting bird like the raven (Ratcliffe, 1993). Peregrine falcons are monogamous, but there are a few documented accounts where males provided food to females at two eyries simultaneously (Nelson, 1990). Typical clutch size is 3-4 mottled brick red eggs. Young are altricial with their creamy white down being replaced by juvenile feathers in three to six weeks, and an average 1.5 chicks will fledge after 35 to 42 days (Blood, 2001). Peregrine falcons have lived 18 to 20 years, but the average lifespan is probably much shorter (Blood, 2001).

Abundance and Range

The Peregrine falcon inhabits rocky coasts in all continents except for Antarctica (Ratcliffe, 1993). A migratory species, Peregrines have established nesting populations in the Arctic and as far south as Tasmania, South Africa and the Falkland Islands (Blood, 2001). A 1991 survey estimated nearly 1600 breeding pairs in Great Britain and Ireland (Ratcliffe, 1993). The USFWS 1998 survey found 1,650 breeding pairs in the United States and Canada. Several thousand breeding pairs have been estimated in the Arctic (Blood, 2001).

Site Fidelity

Nests and specific nesting sites are re-used from generation to generation by the Peregrine falcon, often to the exclusion of other suitable looking sites in the same region (Cade, 1982).

Ease of Census

Moderate

Feeding Habits

Peregrine falcons are bird hunters and are one of the fastest and most aerial predators, using an array of tactics for searching out, attacking, capturing and killing their prey (Cade, 1982). A list of 210 prey species ranging in size from small passerines to large waterfowl have been recorded for central European Peregrines (Ratcliffe, 1993). The preferred prey are columbiform birds (doves and pigeons) making up 20 to 60 percent of the falcon’s diet when available (Cade, 1982).

 

Peregrine Falcon Contaminant Exposure Data

I.

Organochlorine Contamination

A.

Concentrations in Adults and Juveniles

1.

The livers of peregrine falcons obtained in Great Britain between 1962-1969 were analyzed for various organochlorine insecticides (Prestt and Ratcliffe, 1972). The following shows the number of peregrines, out of a total of 5, that contained each of the following residues: DDE (5), TDE (0), DDT (1), dieldrin (5), heptachlor epoxide (5), γBHC (1), αBHC (2), βBHC (2), DME (0).

2.

Organochlorine residues were examined in various organs of five peregrine falcons that were collected from Great Britain and Holland between 1963 and 1965 (Jefferies and Prestt, 1966). Of the four found in Great Britain , one was found dead in 1963, two died very shortly after collection in 1964, and another was found dead in 1965. The bird found in Holland was being held in captivity and died in 1965. The following are the residues (µg/g) in the tissues of the five birds for the contaminants shown listed in order of (liver, N=5 / brain, N=2 / breast muscle, N=2): DDE (70.0, 6.3, 7.3, 50.0, 60.0 / 45.0, 44.1 / 20.0, 41.7), dieldrin (4.0, 0.6, 1.9, 2.2, 9.3 / 3.5, 7.8 / 1.3, 7.5), heptachlor epoxide (1.5, 0.2, 0.1, 3.0, -- / 1.3, -- / 0.3, --), Gamma BHC (--, --, trace, 0.34, 2.3), Other BHC isomers (αβ 2.0, β 0.3, β 0.5 α trace, α <0.2 β <0.2, -- / αβ 1.4, -- / αβ 0.9, --), TDE (--, --, --,  --, 4.4).

3.

Peregrine falcons (N=9) were collected along the Peace, Slave, and Mackenzie rivers in Canada in June and July of 1966 to have their adipose tissue analyzed for organochlorine residues (Enderson and Berger, 1968). Adult females were trapped at sites where about a gram of subcutaneous fat was removed. In Wisconson in September and October of 1966, fat was collected from immature peregrines (N=5) that were caught on migration to be analyzed for organochlorine residues as well. The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the residues found listed as (adult / immature): DDT (37.3 / 0.9), DDE (284 / 14.0), TDE (39.5 / 0.6), dieldrin (3.3 / 0.2), heptachlor epoxide (4.4 / 0.0), mean total residues (368.2 / 15.8). Also analyzed were brain and fat tissue of two immature females collected in 1965 in Wisconsin and Texas , and liver, brain and breast muscle from one immature male that died before release. In the two immature females, concentrations found in the fat were, respectively, DDT (1.03 / 0.0), DDE (24.6 / 7.68), dieldrin (0.69 / 0.60). In the brains, DDE was detected at (0.28 / 0.056) and dieldrin was detected at (0.63 / 0.043), while all other organochlorine residues were not detected. Concentrations found in the immature male are as follows: brain - DDT and metabolites (1.0); liver - DDT and metabolites (1.0), dieldrin (0.20), heptachlor epoxide (0.20); muscle - DDT and metabolites (1.6), dieldrin (0.1).

4.

Various tissues from peregrine falcons collected in 1966 from Alaska were analyzed for pesticide residues (Cade et al., 1968). The following are mean concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) in the various tissues for the contaminants shown and listed in order of (juvenal fat, N=4 / adult fat, N=4 / juvenal muscle, N=4 / adult muscle, N=4 / juvenal liver, N=4 / adult liver, N=4 / juvenal brain, N=4 / adult brain, N=4): DDE (42.4 / 622.0 / 6.33 / 89.2 / 1.57 / 20.9 / 1.64 / 22.6), TDE (1.29 / 25.4 / 0.17 / 4.04 / 0.09 / 1.42 / 0.21 / 1.41), DDT (1.24 / 25.3 / 0.16 / 1.93 / 0.08 / 1.03 / 0.19 / 1.10), dieldrin (0.15 / 6.20 / 0.05 / 4.59 / 0.08 / 0.72 / 0.00 / 0.85). Adult tissues contained the highest concentrations of residues. The total residues for adult fat averaged the highest at 617 µg/g (wet wt), with pectoral muscle averaging the next highest at 26.3 µg/g (wet wt). The concentrations in any given tissue in adults are generally 10 to 20 times higher than in juveniles.

5.

Four adult female peregrine falcons were captured on the Yukon and Porcupine rivers in 1967 and a sample of fat was collected for organochlorine residue analysis (Enderson et al., 1968). Total pesticide residues in the four samples were 130, 717, 754, 2435 µg/g fat basis with a mean of 1009 µg/g.

6.

Peregrine Falcons and their eggs were collected along the Colville River in northern Alaska during the summer of 1967 to have their tissues analyzed for organochlorine residues (Lincer et al., 1970). The following are the average DDE levels found for the peregrine tissues (N=3) listed as (µg/g dry wt / µg/g wet wt): egg (131 / 27.4), brain (58.2 / 10), fat (752 / 372), muscle (114 / 28.9), liver (398 / 103), ovary (N=2) (1117 / 152). Average residue levels for TDE and DDT (µg/g dry wt), respectively, are as follows: egg (2.69 / 5.91), brain (1.74 / 12.8), fat (6.32 / 34.9), pectoral muscle (3.31 / 18.4), liver (1.29 / 3.48), ovary (6.75 / 10.1).

7.

Fat biopsies from nine adult female peregrine falcons were collected in 1967 from Ungava region, Canada (Berger et al., 1970). Fat biopsy samples averaged 310 µg/g (wet wt) or 334 µg/g (lipid wt) of DDE.

8.

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in four peregrine falcons found since 1971 in north and west Scotland either dead or almost dead and coated with an oil-like contamination (Clarke, 1977). The mean concentrations (mg/g, lipid wt) found are as follows: DDE (35.7), dieldrin (8.7), PCBs (129).

9.

Plasma samples from ASY (after second year) female peregrine falcons collected from two regions of Greenland from 1972 to 1989 were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (Jarman et al., 1994). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (ng/g, wet wt) for the contaminants shown and listed in order of  (South Greenland, N=5 / West Greenland, N=41): DDE (140 / 220), DDT (5.8 / 4.9), DDD (1.8 / 3.5), β-HCH (2.8 / 2.6), oxychlordane (26 / 18), heptachlor epoxide (31 / 17), MC-2 (3.5 / 2.8), MC-5 (6.2 / 4.8), trans-nonachlor (3.3 / 3.2), cis-nonachlor (2.4 / 2.4), HCB (5.3 / 3.9), mirex (18 / 10), PCBs: 99 (14 / 6.9), 118 (12 / 6.7), 153 (120 / 47), 138 (30 / 5), 187 (18 / 8.5), 180 (43 / 17), 170,190 (18 / 8.2), 201 (6.8 / 4.0), 196,203 (12 / 5.0), 195 (4.7 / 2.2), 194 (8.5 / 3.3), 206 (8 / 3). The only significant trend found was for HCB decreasing during the time frame. No significant differences in contaminant concentrations occurred between the two regions studied.

10.

 

Carcass and brain tissues from an adult female peregrine falcon found dead on March 27, 1973 at Pea Island National Wildlife Refuge, Manteo , North Carolina were analyzed for organochlorine and PCB compounds (Reichel et al., 1974). The following concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) were found in the tissues and listed as (carcass / brain): DDE (170 / 34), DDD (0.58 / 00), DDT (0.40 / 0.39), dieldrin (20 / 5.4), heptachlor epoxide (1.2 / 0.26), mirex (3.0 / NA), oxychlordane (1.8 / 0.47), cis-chlordane (4.3 / 0.47), hexachlorobenzene (0.80 / 0.39), PCB (220 / 55). The concentration of dieldrin in the brain of this falcon was within the range known to have caused death in other birds by dieldrin poisoning. It was concluded that dieldrin poisoning was the cause of death of this falcon, with disease being contributory.

11.

Plasma samples from 433 peregrine falcons along the Atlantic coast during fall and spring migrations from 1976-80 were analyzed for organochlorine contamination (Henny et al., 1982). The following are the geometric mean DDE concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for birds captured in Texas: HY females (N=109) 0.05; HY males (N=40) 0.06; SY females during Fall (N=7) 0.28, Spring (N=27) 0.60; ASY females during Fall (N=18) 0.40, Spring (N=87) 0.67; and in Maryland/Virginia: HY females (N=176) 0.06; HY males (N=43) 0.07; SY females during Fall (N=17) 0.75; ASY females during Fall (N=5) 0.71.

12.

Organochlorine residues were obtained from the blood plasma of female peregrine falcons captured in the spring at Padre Island , Texas in 1978-1984 (Henny et al., 1988). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for DDE, and the number with detectable residues (highest residue in parenthesis) for all other pollutants, listed as (SY (second year), 1978-79, N=8 / SY, 1980, N=19 / SY, 1984, N=16 / ASY (after second year), 1978-79, N=21 / ASY, 1980, N=63 / ASY, 1984, N=27): DDE (1.43 / 0.42 / 0.43 / 0.88 / 0.62 / 0.55), DDT (2(0.38) / 0 / 0 / 4(0.44) / 1(0.04) / 1(0.42)), DDD (0 / 0 / 0 / 2(0.07) / 0 / 1(0.28)), heptachlor epoxide (4(1.10) / 12(0.53) / 7(0.69) / 6(0.44) / 28(0.44) / 9(1.40)), dieldrin (4(0.30) / 9(0.20) / 9(0.22) / 9(0.17) / 37(0.65) / 15(0.60)), oxychlordane (0 / 0 / 1(0.04) / 2(0.13) / 11(0.05) / 4(0.06)), mirex (0 / 1(0.05) / 1(0.09) / 4(0.08) / 18(0.17) / 7(0.16)), PCBs (NA / NA / 2(0.29) / NA / NA / 12(0.75)).

13.

Blood plasma from female peregrine falcons captured from1978 to 1994 (during spring part of migration) at Padre Island , Texas were evaluated for organochlorine and PCB contaminants (Henny et al., 1996). The following DDE concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) were found for the years indicated and listed by age as (second year / after second year): 1978-79 (N=8, 1.43 / N=21, 0.88), 1980 (N=19, 0.42 / N=63, 0.62), 1984 (N=16, 0.43 / N=27, 0.55), 1994 (N=25, 0.25 / N=45, 0.41). The percentage of falcons that had detectable concentrations of various contaminants (greater than or equal to .02 µg/g) were listed as follows: Second year falcons – 1978-1979, N=8 (DDT=25%, heptachlor epoxide (HE)=50%, dieldrin=50%); 1980, N=19 (HE=63%, dieldrin=47%, mirex=5%); 1984, N=16 (HE=44%, dieldrin=56%, oxychlordane=6%); 1994, N=25 (PCB=48%). After second year falcons – 1978-1979, N=21 (DDT=19%, DDD=10%, HE=29%, dieldrin=43%, oxychlordane=10%, mirex=19%); 1980, N=63 (DDT=2%, HE=44%, dieldrin=59%, oxychlordane=17%, mirex=29%); 1984, N=27 (DDT=4%, HE=33%, dieldrin=56%, oxychlordane=15%, mirex=26%); 1994, N=45 (PCB=76%).

DDE and PCB concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) in the blood plasma of female peregrine falcons was compared by location of  nesting sites and winter sites with the following results (DDE / PCB): Canada – NWT, unknown winter site (0.35 / 0.72), Rankin Inlet NWT, winters in Cuba (0.97 / 1.79), King William Island NWT, winter in Yucatan, Mexico (0.99 / 2.39), West Baffin Island, winter in Panama (0.13 / <0.05); Upper Yukon River, AK, winter in Argentina (0.55 / <0.05); SW Greenland, unknown winter site (0.79 / 0.76), W. Greenland, unknown winter site (0.42 / <0.05).

14.

Contents of peregrine falcon eggs (addled or leaking) collected from Argentina (N=2, Chubut and Santa Cruz ) and Arizona (N=1) between Novemeber and December, 1981, were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants (Ellis, 1985). The following concentrations (µg/g, wet wt.) were found and are listed in order of ( Arizona / Chubut / Santa Cruz ): DDE (7.00 / 7.00 / 7.50),  DDD (NA / 0.12 / 0.13), DDT (0.09 / 0.13 / 0.29),  dieldrin (NA / NA / 0.95),  heptachlor epoxide (0.05 / 0.60 / 0.80), oxychlordane (NA / 0.13 / 0.13), PCBs (0.38 / 1.05 / 0.44).

15.

Levels of organochlorine residues were analyzed in blood plasma samples from peregrine falcons collected from Rankin Inlet, Northwest Territories, Canada from 1981-1986 (Court et al., 1990). The following are the geometric means (µg/g, wet wt) for the pollutants shown listed as (male (N=22) / female (N=62)): DDE (0.93 / 0.76), PCB (0.23 / 0.53), dieldrin (0.05 / 0.07), heptachlor epoxide (0.06 / 0.04).

16.

One peregrine falcon collected sometime between 1991-1993 from the Chuba region, Japan was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (Hoshi et al., 1998). The following are liver concentrations (ng/g, wet wt): PCBs (430), α –HCHs (<0.01), β –HCH (77), γ -HCH (<0.01), DDE (350), DDD (<0.01), o,p’DDT (<0.01), DDT (<0.01), HCB (44).

17.

Blood plasma samples were analyzed for organochlorine residues from peregrine falcons collected in the Canadian Arctic during 1991-1994 (Johnstone et al., 1996). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of various residues found in the birds listed as (adult males, N=26 / adult females, N=34): ΣPCB (0.15 / 0.87), oxychlordane (ND / 0.02), HCE (0.02 / 0.03), DDE (0.31 / 0.63), dieldrin (0.03 / 0.04), mirex (0.02 / 0.08). Adult females had significantly higher levels of DDE and PCB than adult males, but there was no difference between sexes in any other residue levels.

18.

Between 1994 and 1998, selected tissues were removed for chemical analysis from carcasses of three peregrine falcons (two females and one male) found injured or dead in Big Bend National Park , Texas (Mora et al., 2002). DDE (µg/g, wet wt) was detected in the carcass of one fledgling female (2.4) and one adult male (4.87).

B.

Concentration in Eggs, Embryos, Chicks, and Nestlings

1.

The dried membranes of blown Peregrine falcon eggs collected from different sites in Australia from 1898 to 1977 were analyzed for DDE contamination (Olsen and Peakall, 1983). The following are the concentrations (µg/g, lipid) found per year: 1898, 1918, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1944 (No detectable quantities of DDE for these years); 1949 (40); 1950 (>20); 1951 (65); 1963, N=3 (100, 120, 100); 1966 (350); 1968 (85); 1971 (>20); 1973 (150); 1977, N=3 (600, >20, 160). Measurement of the thicknesses of these eggshells revealed a linear relationship between the shell thickness index and the logarithm of DDE in egg contents.

2.

Five peregrine falcon eggshells were collected in California from 1948 to 1950 and were analyzed for the presence of DDE in the dried membranes (Peakall, 1974). To determine DDE in the egg contents, a ratio of DDE in the egg contents to DDE in the membranes was calculated. The following are the concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of DDE in the egg contents calculated from the five eggshells found: 7, 3, 9, 30, 4. The DDE found in peregrine falcon eggs at least as early as 1948, is in sufficient enough concentrations to account for the eggshell thinning.

3.

One single peregrine falcon egg that was collected on July 1, 19 61 near Crieff, Perthshire was analyzed various organochlorines (Moore and Ratcliffe, 1962). The whole egg was found to contain (in micrograms): DDE (115), dieldrin (50), heptachlor epoxide (28), heptachlor (not more than 2), gamma-BHC (not more than 2). It was not possible to convert these figures accurately into concentration units since the egg was cracked, dried up, and about a year old upon examination, however it can be concluded that the egg contained about 4-5 µg/g of total chlorine hydrocarbon residue.

4.

The eggs of peregrine falcons obtained in Great Britain between 1962 and 1969 were analyzed for various organochlorine insecticides (Prestt and Ratcliffe, 1972). The following shows the number of peregrine eggs, out of a total of 51, that contained each of the following residues: DDE (51), TDE (5), DDT (17), dieldrin (48), heptachlor epoxide (24), γBHC (0), αBHC (0), βBHC (0), DME (1). The mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for various residues found in the peregrine eggs follow and are listed as (East and Central Highlands, N=16 / Other regions of Britain, N=42): BHC isomers (0.02 / 0.23), heptachlor epoxide (0.28 / 0.54), HEOD (0.29 / 0.57), DDE (3.25 / 13.76), TDE (0.06 / 0.04), DDT (0.10 / 0.07), DME (- / 0.01), total organochlorine residues (4.01 / 15.16), PCB (0.92 (N=12) / 1.12 (N=17)).

5.

Organochlorine concentrations were analyzed from addled or deserted peregrine falcon eggs collected throughout Britain (N=550, clutches=469) from 1963 to 1986 (apart for one egg in 1961) (Newton et al., 1989). The following geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) were found for the contaminants shown, listed by time period as (HEOD / DDE / PCB): 1961-1970: Northern England (Inland), N=9 (0.71 / 15.19 / 1.73); Southern Scotland (Inland), N=32 (0.29 / 10.05 / 0.65); Southern Highland Fringe (Inland), N=5 (0.49 / 5.82 / 2.00); Central and eastern Highlands (Inland), N=21 (0.11 / 2.03 / 0.86); Northern and western Highlands (Inland), N=2 (0.01 / 2.05 / 0.36). 1971-1980: Wales (Inland), N=6 (0.7 / 3.12 / 2.48), (Coastal), N=2 (0.55 / 1.89 / 4.48); Northern England (Inland), N=25 (0.45 / 2.71 / 1.12); Southern Scotland (Inland), N=72 (0.65 / 3.09 / 2.48), (Coastal), N=9 (0.24 / 5.44 / 10.47); Southern Highland Fringe (Inland), N=24 (0.20 / 1.48 / 1.99), (Coastal), N=11 (0.77 / 6.42 / 14.56); Central and eastern Highlands (Inland), N=40 (0.05 / 0.72 / 1.02); Northern and western Highlands (Inland), N=15 (0.08 / 1.99 / 5.49), (Coastal), N=9 (0.09 / 1.99 / 4.86). 1981-1986: Southwest England (Coastal), N=2 (0.44 / 2.44 / 3.63); Wales (Inland), N=4 (0.12 / 2.70 / 1.44); Northern England (Inland), N=31 (0.13 / 2.33 / 1.44); Southern Scotland (Inland), N=46 (0.09 / 1.83 / 2.35), (Coastal), N=5 (0.10 / 4.19 / 4.87); Southern Highland Fringe (Inland), N=17 (0.11 / 2.34 / 4.13), (Coastal), N=14 (0.22 / 4.40 / 9.41); Central and eastern Highlands (Inland), N=43 (0.05 / 0.58 / 0.82); Northern and western Highlands (Inland), N=8 (0.09 / 2.79 / 10.33), (Coastal), N=5 (0.09 / 2.67 / 13.67).

Eggs from the more southern parts of the inland range contained significantly more DDE and HEOD than those from the north. Although fewer eggs were obtained from coastal sites, the regional variation in HEOD and DDE during 1971-1980 emerged as statistically significant; eggs from the south contained higher concentrations than eggs from the north. DDE was found to significantly affect productivity at geometric mean concentrations greater than 3 µg/g in the egg.

Organochlorine concentrations were compared in single peregrine eggs from first and repeat clutches obtained in the same territory in the same year. The following are the concentrations found, listed as (first / repeat): 1966: HEOD (0.3 / 0.6), DDE (22.0 / 22.0), PCB (NA / NA); 1967: HEOD (0.2 / 0.3), DDE (16.0 / 15.0), PCB (1.0 / 1.0); 1968: HEOD (0.1 / 0.2), DDE (8.6 / 15.0), PCB (0.6 / 0.1).

Peregrine falcon eggs collected from Ireland were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants as well. The geometric concentrations means found follow and are listed as (Inland Irish sites, N=4 / Coastal Irish sites, N=11): HEOD (0.14 / 0.28), DDE (2.07 / 2.33), PCB (0.78 / 1.17).

6.

DDE residues were analyzed for 9 peregrine falcon eggs collected in Monks Wood between 1965 and 1977 (Cooke, 1979). The range of DDE residues in the egg contents was 2.0-7.0 µg/g (wet wt).

7.

Organochlorine residue levels were analyzed in 205 peregrine falcon eggs collected in Canada between 1965 and 1987 (Peakall et al., 1990). Eggs were collected as available rather than in a structured monitoring program and are grouped in to three time periods—1965-1972, 1973-1979, and 1980-1987—representing, respectively, the organochlorine era in North America, the immediate post-restriction era, and the current period. The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of the residues found for Falco peregrinus pealei listed by year as (1965-1972 / 1980-1986): DDE (7.84 / 5.84), DDT (8.13 / 5.87), PCBs (n.d. / 8.54), dieldrin (0.062 / 0.027), heptachlor epoxide (0.015 / 0.040), HCB (0.045 / 0.142), oxychlordane (0.011 / 0.148). The following are the geometric mean concentrations of the residues found for Falco peregrinus anatum listed by year as (1965-1972 / 1973-1979 / 1980-1987): DDE (32.75 / 11.20 / 9.13), DDT (33.45 / 11.83 / 9.23), PCBs (n.d. / 5.83 / 3.97), dieldrin (0.901 / 0.518 / 0.287), heptachlor epoxide (0.212 / 0.240 / 0.236), HCB (0.027 / 0.049 / 0.279), oxychlordane (n.d. / 0.088 / 0.117). The following are the geometric mean concentrations of the residues found for Falco peregrinus tundrius listed by year as (1965-1972 / 1973-1979 / 1980-1986): DDE (9.90 / 8.55 / 6.84), DDT (10.97 / 8.96 / 7.27), PCBs (n.d. / 11.56 / 9.82), dieldrin (0.794 / 0.491 / 0.574), heptachlor epoxide (0.258 / 0.207 / 0.390), HCB (n.d. / 0.048 / 0.045), oxychlordane (n.d. / 0.019 / 0.160).

8.

Peregrine falcon eggs were collected (one egg from each nest) along the Peace, Slave, and Mackenzie rivers in Canada in June and July of 1966 to have their contents analyzed for organochlorine residues (Enderson and Berger, 1968). For one egg, only the embryo was analyzed due to it breaking during shipment. One day-old chick that accidentally died at the nest site was analyzed as well. The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the residues found listed as (viable eggs, N=5 / nonviable eggs, N=2 / embryo, N=1 / chick, N=1): DDT (2.9 / 2.5 / 1.6 / 0.95), DDE (17.8 / 27.9 / 8.0 / 21.7), TDE (2.1 / 2.9 / 1.6 / 1.44), dieldrin (0.8 / 0.5 / 0.2 / 0.32), heptachlor epoxide (0.4 / 0.8 / 0.4 / 0.14), mean total residues (24.0 / 34.6 / 11.8 / 24.55).

9.

Various tissues from peregrine falcon eggs and chicks collected in 1966 from Alaska were analyzed for pesticide residues (Cade et al., 1968). The following are mean concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) found in the tissues for the contaminants shown and listed in order of (eggs, N=2 / downy chicks, N=2): DDE (48.0 / 38.4), TDE (3.35 / 3.65), DDT (3.02 / 2.41), dieldrin (2.75 / 0.86). Whole eggs and chicks had total residues that were about 10 to 100 times more concentrated than that of their prey species, containing about 15 µg/g (wet wt) of total residues.

10.

Peregrine falcon eggs (N=10) were collected in 1967 from Ungava region, Canada (Berger et al. 1970). The average concentration of DDE in the eggs was 12.7 µg/g (wet wt) and 253 µg/g (lipid wt).

11.

DDE residues were calculated in egg content for three populations of Alaskan peregrine falcons (Cade et al., 1971). The populations, dates of collections and DDE concentrations (µg/g, lipid basis) were: Colville, 1967-1969, (N=19), 889; Yukon and interior, 1968-1969, (N=14), 673; Amchitka , 1969-1970, (N=11), 167.

12.

Organochlorine pollutants were analyzed from fat biopsy samples obtained from three month old peregrine falcons (N=10) trapped at the Cedar Grove Ornithological Station on the western shore of Lake Michigan during the fall migrations of 1968 and 1969 (Risebrough et al, 1970). The following are average concentrations (µg/g, extractable lipid basis) found: DDE (17.9), DDD (0.23), DDT (0.71), total DDT (18.8), PCB (52.2), dieldrin (N=7) (0.40).

13.

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in peregrine falcon eggs in Alaska during 1968-1973 (Peakall et al., 1975). The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) of DDE residues and the mean shell index (mg/mm²) listed by place as (year / n / DDE mean): Colville River (1968 / 11 / 193.9), (1969 / 5 / 163.8), (1971 / 7 / 210.8), Yukon River (1968 / 11 / 105.6), Tanana River (1969 / 3 / 344.3), (1973 / 302.7), Amchitka (1969 / 6 / 25.0), (1970 / 6 / 39.8), (1971 / 3 / 24.1), (1973 / 7 / 26.3).

DDE levels in dead young peregrines along the Colville River for 1969 (N=9; young found dead in the nest) and 1966 (N=4; young alive when collected) were analyzed. Mean DDE concentrations are listed by year as (muscle / liver / brain): 1969 (5.1 / 11.7 / 17.6), 1966 (6.3 / 1.6 / 1.6).

Also analyzed for residues were three clutches of peregrine eggs. Eggs from a bird taken as a nestling in 1968 had DDE levels of 7.8 µg/g (dry wt) in 1972. Eggs from a Yukon River bird taken as a nestling in 1966 (raised on a diet of fresh fowl and coturnix quail) had DDE levels of 9.0 µg/g in 1972 and 7.7 µg/g in 1973.

PCB mean concentrations found in peregrine eggs in Alaska are listed by place as (year / n / mean): Colville River (1971 / 7 / 173.4), Tanana River (1973 / 3 / 350.1), Amchitka (1971 / 3 / 114.4), (1973 / 7 / 144.6).

14.

DDE concentrations in unhatched peregrine falcon eggs collected from the central California coast between 1969-1983 were recorded (Hunt et al., 1986). The geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) are as follows: 1969, (N=1) 130; 1976, (N=1) 95; 1977, (N=1) 130; 1978, (N=3) 130; 1979, (N=5) 140; 1980, (N=4) 100; 1981, (N=3) 120; 1982, (N=8) 92; 1983, (N=6) 130.

15.

Organochlorine residues were analyzed from two different unhatched peregrine falcons eggs collected in Greenland in 1972 (Walker et al., 1973). One egg, which had no apparent development, had concentrations (µg/g, lipid) for DDE and PCB of 364 and 403, respectively. The other egg, which contained a large embryo that had died within a week of hatching, had concentration for DDE and PCB of 300 and 210, respectively.

16.

Organochlorine residues were analyzed in intact, addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in Colorado and northern New Mexico between 1973-1979 (Enderson et al., 1982). The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the pollutants shown found in the eggs (N=47): DDE (23.3), dieldrin (0.22), PCBs (5.0), total organochlorines (25.5). The mean DDE concentration found is an amount predicted to correlate with 18% thinning for eggshells compared to the pre-1947 mean.

17.

The contents of the eggs collected from Colorado and northern New Mexico between 1973-1985 that failed to hatch (N=78) were analyzed for organochlorine residues (Enderson et al., 1988). The mean concentration (µg/g, wet wt) of DDE for the years 1973-1979 was 26, whereas for 1980-1983 the mean concentration was 15. This difference is not significant. There was also no statistically significant relationship in the data between eggshell thickness and DDE residues in the egg contents. PCBs were detected with a mean concentration of 2 in 1973-1979 and 1 for all years after 1979. After 1976, other organochlorines were analyzed as well, and the mean concentrations are as follows: DDT (found above detection limits in 59% of the eggs (N=69) examined - seldom exceeded 0.5), dieldrin (detected in most eggs at usually less than 0.25), heptachlor epoxide (detected in most eggs at less than 0.75).

18.

Peregrine falcon eggs collected from nesting sites in Monts Jura, France from 1974 to 1978 (non-hatching eggs) and sterile eggs from captive Peregrines collected in 1978 and 1979 were analyzed for organochlorine contamination (Keck et al., 1982). The following are the concentrations (µg/g, fresh wt) of contaminants for the years listed: 1974, N=6, (DDE / PCB): (27 / 169), (1.4 / 3.5), (8.3 / 0.77), (10, 0.97), (28, 23), (3.4, 9.4). 1975, N=8, (HCB / total HCH / DDE / PCB): (1.9 / 0.073 / 22 / 0.94), (2.2 / 0.10 / 37 / 1.2), (0.14 / 0.10 / 2.6 / 0.12), (0.068 / 0.093 / 0.90 / 0.067), (0.32 / 0.27 / 9.6 / 0.11), (0.21 / 0.14 / 3.5 / 0.16), (0.17 / 0.19 / 2.6 / 1.0), (0.058 / 0.038 / 1.5 / 0.096). 1976 N=14, (HCB / HCH / DDE / PCB): (0.98 / 0.21 / 10 / 72), (4.4 / 0.67 / 38 / 180), (4.9 / 0.78 / 33 / 34),  (0.028 / 0.12 / 14 / 21), (0.31 / 0.076 / 3.3 / 5.5), (0.82 / 0.95 / 30 / 45), (4.3 / 1.0 / 35 / 79), (0.020 / NA / 0.26 / 0.47), (0.010 / NA / 0.080 / 0.29), (0.052 /  NA / 0.44 / 1.9), (0.53 / 0.31 / 7.7 / 21), (5.2 / 1.3 / 60 / 180), (1.4 / 0.038 / 6.0 / 62), (1.0 / 0.28 / 29 / 56). 1977 N=5, (HCB / DDE / PCB): (2.5 / 37 / 120), (2.9 / 0.63 / 120), (2 / 56 / 73), (0.70 / 9.7 / 22), (0.78 / 14 / 38). 1978 wild birds N=9, (HCB / HCH / DDE / TDE / DDT / heptachlor epoxide-dieldrin / PCB): (1.3 / 0.13 / 42 / 0.11 / 0.05 / ND / 90), (0.57 / 0.12 / 26 / 0.10 / 0.02 / 0.014 / 68), (0.27 / 0.16 / 4.0 / 0.09 / 0.08 / 0.24 / 6.8), (0.02 / 0.01 / 6.1 / 0.05 / 0.01 / ND / 8.6), (0.30 / 0.08 / 3.1 / 0.01 / 0.01 / 0.02 / 2.9), (0.48 / 0.01 / 4.0 / 0.05 / 0.18 / ND / 18), (1.6 / 0.01 / 35 / 0.42 / ND / 0.01 / 66),  (0.03 / 0.08 / 7.4 / 0.01 / 0.009 / 0.01 / 12), (0.03 / 0.13 / 0.79 / 0.01 / 0.02 / 0.02 / 3.7). 1978 captive birds N=8, (HCB / HCH / DDE / TDE / DDT / heptachlor epoxide-dieldrin / PCB): (0.17 / 0.25 / 1.01 / 0.06 / 0.07 / 0.066 / 4.8), (0.37 / 0.09 / 0.83 / 0.06 / 0.08 / 0.091 / 5.5), (0.19 / 0.04 / 0.58 / 0.09 / 0.015 / 0.016 / 5.0), (0.04 / 0.06 / 0.49 / 0.04 / ND / ND / 4.9), (0.03 / 0.13 / 0.79 / 0.01 / 0.022 / 0.020 / 3.7), (0.02 / 0.16 / 0.43 / 0.02 / 0.033 / 0.058 / 2.3), (ND / 0.16 / 0.81 / 0.02 / 0.029 / 0.020 / 3.5), (0.01 / 0.07 / 1.7 / 1.2 / 0.5 / 0.16 / 7.2).

19.

Peregrine falcon eggs collected from 1975 to 1977 in Victoria , Australia were measured for organochlorine contamination (Pruett-Jones et al., 1981). The following are the mean concentrations found (µg/g, wet wt): DDE, N=35 (17.63), PCBs, N=32 (0.93), dieldrin, N=27 (0.24). Variation in the concentrations of PCBs and dieldrin generally corresponded with the variation in DDE content; the egg with the highest concentration of DDE (82) also had the highest concentrations of PCBs (4.3) and Dieldrin (1.5). Residue concentrations of all other chemical contaminants was less than .005 µg/g.

20.

The contents of peregrine falcon eggs collected (N=137) from three regions of SE Australia (Tasmania 1975-1991, Victoria 1975-1983, and South Australia 1977-1981) were analyzed for organochlorine contamination (Olsen et al., 1992). The following are the residue concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) found and listed in order of (DDE / total DDT / dieldrin): Tasmania – Croplands, 1975-91, N=10 (3.4 / 3.5 / 0), Rangelands, 1975-91, N=30 (2.0 / 1.9 / 0), Wilderness 1977-82, N=7 (6.1 / 6.3 / 0); Victoria – Croplands, 1975-83, N=74 (12.4 / 12.6 / 0), Rangelands, 1977-79, N=4 (1.8 / 2.0 / 0); South Australia – Rangelands, 1977-81, N=12 (1.95 / 2.16 / 0). Only trace amounts of dieldrin were found in any of the eggs analyzed. There was a significant negative relationship between the thickness index and the DDE content of the eggs. DDE concentrations in eggs collected from agricultural areas of Victoria (croplands) were significantly greater than those collected in other study areas. In Victoria there was a sign of decreasing DDE loads, as a significant difference existed between 1975 (mean=19.4) and 1983 (4.4) and between 1981 (24.2) and 1983 (4.4). In Tasmania DDE residues decreased from 1975 to 1991 and there was a significant negative relationship between DDE in eggs and year collected. In Tasmania there was also a significant positive correlation between DDE concentration in eggs and thickness index for increasing year, showing a recovery in eggshell thicknesses associated with decreasing DDE contamination. No significant relationships existed between mean concentrations of DDE or Dieldrin and any of the annual measures of productivity or occupancy in any state except Tasmania where DDE concentrations in the eggs were significantly and negatively related to productivity and nest site occupancy (5 µg/g or higher average DDE concentration in eggs was related to a decline in nest site occupancy and number of chicks fledged per site was reduced by one chick for every 25 µg/g DDE in egg content). .

21.

Organochlorine residue levels in the pectoral muscle of peregrine falcon nestlings found dead in northern Sweden in 1977 were analyzed (Lindberg et al., 1985). Mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the nestlings (N=4) for ∑DDT and PCB were 0.98 and 1.11, respectively.

22.

Peregrine falcon eggs and chicks found dead were collected between 1977 and 1980 in Alaska and Greenland, and one single egg from Arizona , to be analyzed for a number of organochlorine pollutants (Springer et al., 1984). The following are the mean concentrations found (µg/g, wet wt), followed by the number of eggs or chicks analyzed, listed as (Greenland eggs [n] / Alaska Arctic eggs [n] / Alaska Taiga eggs [n] / Alaska Taiga chicks [n] / Arizona egg [n]): DDE (61 [7] / 86 [8] / 44 [14] / 15 [2] / 33 [1]), DDD (0.65 [7] / 0.38 [7] / 0.22 [11] / 0.015 [2] / 0.07 [1]), DDT (0.23 [7] / 0.46 [7] / 0.18 [11] / 0.002 [2] / 0.50 [1]), α-HCH (0.046 [7] / 0.074 [7] / 0.028 [7] / 0.0065 [2] / 0.08 [1]), β-HCH (0.40 [7] / 0.92 [7] / 0.52 [7] / 0.047 [2] / 0.49 [1]), γ-HCH (0.018 [6] / 0.013 [6] / 0.0056 [7] / 0.0008 [2] / <0.005 [1]), mirex (0.57 [7] / 0.96 [8] / 1.6 [13] / 0.33 [2] / <0.02 [1]), HCB (0.35 [6] / 0.15 [7] / 0.15 [11] / 0.042 [2] / 0.29 [1]), PCB (29 [7] / 22 [7] / 20 [11] / 2.8 [2] / 0.96 [1]), dieldrin (2.0 [7] / 4.6 [7] / 1.8 [12] / 0.36 [2] / 0.34 [1]), endrin (0.12 [6] / 0.11 [6] / 0.050 [10] / 0.0040 [2] / 0.20 [1]), heptaclor epoxide (0.90 [7] / 2.4 [7] / 0.68 [11] / 0.20 [2] / 0.76 [1]), cis-nonachlor (-- / 0.11 [4] / 0.065 [10] / 0.015 [1] / --), trans-nonachlor (0.11 [6] / 0.17 [7] / 0.12 [11] / 0.023 [2] / 0.01 [1]), oxychlordane (0.68 [7] / 1.2 [7] / 0.39 [11] / 0.18 [2] / 0.49 [1]).

23.

Contaminant levels for five whole, addled peregrine falcon eggs collected in Arizona from 1978-1985 were analyzed (Ellis et al., 1989). The following are the concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) found for the contaminants listed by (1978, N=1 / 1981, N=1 / 1982, N=3; separate concentrations for each egg): DDE (33 / 42 / 14 / 10 / 6.4), DDT (0.50 / 0.53 / 0.07 / 0.07 / 0.11), beta-HCH (0.49 / - / 0.83 / 0.84 / 1.31), PCB (0.96 / 2.23 / 1.1 / 0.79 / 1.03), heptachlor epoxide (0.76 / 0.29 / 0.27 / 0.27 / 0.41), oxychlordane (0.49 / ND / 0.09 / 0.13 / 0.19), dieldrin (0.34 / ND / 0.12 / 0.10 / 0.10), HCB (0.29 / - / 0.68 / 0.31 / 0.50), endrin (0.20 / ND / 0.03 / 0.02 / 0.04).

24.

Organochlorine residues were evaluated in addled peregrine falcon eggs, specifically F. p. anatum and F. p. tundrius, collected in Alaska between 1979 and 1984 and in random eggs collected in Alaska in 1984 (Ambrose et al., 1988). In 1984, random (N=4) and addled (N=4) eggs showed no significant difference in DDE residues with mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of 8.3 and 8.2, respectively. These eggs also showed no significant difference in eggshell thickness with mean thicknesses of 0.328 mm and 0.323 mm, respectively. Random (N=7) and addled (N=6) eggs of F. p. anatum showed no significant difference in DDE residues with mean concentrations of 12.5 and 12.6, respectively. These eggs also showed no significant difference in eggshell thickness with mean thicknesses of 0.316 mm and 0.307 mm, respectively. The following are the mean concentrations of various organochlorines, as well as mean eggshell thickness (mm) for both random and addled eggs for all years, listed as (F. p. tundrius, N=19 / F. p. anatum, N=31): DDE (9.3 / 10.6), no. of eggs with ≥0.10 DDT (6 / 2), Dieldrin (0.25 / 0.16), heptachlor epoxide (0.24 / 0.33), oxychlordane (0.12 / 0.14), PCB (2.04 / 2.65), eggshell thickness (0.311 / 0.313).

DDE intraclutch variability was found to be low and is listed by clutch: (13, 12, 11), (15, 12), (34, 31, 27), (18, 15, 12, 12), (10, 9.4), (4.9, 4.3), (8.2, 8), (13, 12), (8.3, 8.2). In 1984, twelve randomly selected eyries with ≥15 µg/g (wet wt) DDE in a sample egg and six eyries with >15 µg/g DDE produced 1.8 young per eyrie and 1.7 young per eyrie, respectively. For the addled eggs collected, four of seven eyries were successful when they contained >15 µg/g DDE.

25.

Peregrine falcon eggs collected in 1980 and 1984 were analyzed for organochlorines in the Gulf of California (Porter and Jenkins, 1988). The following are the organochlorine residues (µg/g, wet wt) found in five eggs sampled, as well as the eggshell thickness (mm) and percent thinning, respectively: DDE (2.4, 10.5, 25.0, 12.9, 13.0), PCB (0.5, 2.3, 10.6, 3.0, 2.8), eggshell thickness (0.293, 0.295, --, 0.321, 0.356), percent thinning (16, 15, --, 8, +2).

26.

Infertile or addled eggs and eggshell fragments (N=39) of peregrine falcons were collected at mid-Atlantic and urban breeding sites between 1981 and 1984 to be analyzed for organochorine residues (Gilroy and Barclay, 1988). The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of the contaminants found listed as (1981, Baltimore, N=4) / (1981, Brigantine, N=1) / (1982, Baltimore, N=8) / (1982, Brigantine, N=1) / (1982, Sedge Island N=4) / (1983, Baltimore, N=4) / (1983, Manahawkin, N=2) / (1984, Comm. Barry Bridge, N=2) / (1984, Manahawkin, N=2) / (1984, Sedge Island N=1) / (1984, Sea Isle City, N=1) / (1984, South Marsh Island, N=1) / (1984, Swan Bay, N=1) / (1984, Tuckahoe, N=2): DDE (3.4 / 6.5 / 2.4 / 9.6 / 8.8 / 1.9 / 5.3 / 5.7 / 14 / 5.4 / 18 / 14 / 6.4 / 12), ∑DDT (3.4 / 6.6 / 2.5 / 9.7 / 9.0 / 2.0 / 5.4 / 5.8 / 15 / 5.6 / 18 / 15 / 6.5 / 12), heptachlor epoxide (0.09 / 0.18 / 0.12 / 0.23 / 0.08 / 0.06 / 0.10 / 0.25 / 0.47 / 0.39 / 0.31 / 0.36 / 0.09 / 0.46), oxychlordane (0.20 / 0.44 / 0.18 / 0.47 / 0.18 / 0.16 / 0.38 / 0.26 / 0.78 / 0.41 / 0.62 / 0.72 / 0.29 / 0.82), PCBs (2.1 / 10 / 2.8 / 15 / 4.9 / 3.3 / 5.8 / 6.3 / 12 / 5.7 / 19 / 8.2 / 7.5 / 6.9).

27.

Levels of organochlorine residues were analyzed in fifty peregrine falcon eggs collected from Rankin Inlet, Northwest Territories, Canada from 1981-1986 (Court et al., 1990). The following are the geometric means (µg/g, wet wt) for the pollutants shown: DDE (7.59), PCB (8.74), dieldrin (0.41), heptachlor epoxide (0.36), oxychlordane (0.21), DDT (0.10), DDD (0.04), HCB (0.03).

Nestlings were also analyzed for organochlorine residues through blood samples taken. DDE was the only pollutant found in the nestlings with a geometric mean of 0.02 (N=19).

28.

Two eggs from a peregrine falcon collected on December 1982 in central Ecuador were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants (Jenny et al., 1983). Following are the concentrations found (µg/g, wet wt.) for the two eggs, respectively: DDE (1.4 / 0.69), DDD (<0.01 / <0.01), DDT (<0.01 / <0.01), PCBs (0.27 / <0.10), dieldrin (0.07 / 0.04), αBHC (0.01 / <0.01), γBHC (0.01 / <0.01), βBHC (0.09 / <0.01), HCH (<0.01 / 0.01), endrin (<0.01 / <0.01), heptachlor epoxide (0.05 / 0.03), mirex (<0.01 / <0.01), oxychlordane (0.04 / 0.02). The eggshell thicknesses measured (mm) for both eggs were 0.399 and 0.363 with membrane and 0.329 and 0.288 without membrane.

29.

Concentrations of organochlorine compounds were analyzed in 7 peregrine falcon eggs collected on the central coast of and northern California between 1983-1988 (Jarman et al., 1993b). One immature falcon found dead in 1985 was also analyzed. The following are the major PCDD and PCDF geometric mean concentrations (ng/kg, wet wt) identified in the eggs: 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD (11); 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD (11); TCDF (6.2); 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF (6.5); TCDD (5.7). Geometric mean concentrations for PCDDs and PCDFs found in the immature falcon are as follows: TCDD (<10), 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD (36), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD (11), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD (34), 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD (1.5), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD (6.4), OCDD (3.0), TCDF (6.0), 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF (7.9), 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF (11), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD (2.8), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD (1.9), 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDD (0.75), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD (0.83), OCDF (1.0). Geometric mean concentrations for other various organochlorines are as follows: DDE (12000), HCH (24), heptachlor epoxide (2.5), oxychlordane (55), HCB (36), mirex (24), PCBs (4800).

30.

Infertile peregrine falcon eggs (N=3) collected from nesting sites in Castile Plateau , Spain in 1985 and 1986 were analyzed for organochlorine residues (Hernández et al., 1988). The following are the geometric means (µg/g, wet wt) for organochlorine concentrations: HCH 0.021, DDE 9.752, DDT 0.172, PCBs 1.247. TDE was detected in two peregrine eggs at 0.18 µg/g and 0.37 µg/g.

31.

Addled eggs of the peregrine falcon were collected from the East Coast of the United States in 1986-1988 to compare DDE and PCB concentrations (N=37) with shell thicknesses (N=112) (Burns et al., 1994). Also determined was whether detectable changes in environmental levels of these contaminants along with other organochlorines have occurred over the decade, and the present contamination patterns in this population. The geometric means (µg/g, wet wt) of DDE and PCB found in the eggs were 7.8 and 8.9, respectively. The geometric mean shell thickness of all the eggs collected between 1985 and 1988 was 0.32 mm, or 11% thinner than the pre-1947 mean thickness of 0.36mm. DDE and PCB levels were below, while the shell thickness was above, threshold levels considered critical for reproductive success. Mean concentration levels (µg/kg, wet wt) found in the other organochlorines are as follows: HCB (23), trans-nonachlor (200), heptachlor epoxide (170), oxychlordane (400), mirex (190), βHCH (7.8), dieldrin (270). When the organochlorine residue levels found are compared with earlier data collected, there was no indication of detectable changes in residue levels or shell thickness over the decade. Although local variations were detected, residue levels found indicate that a general contamination pattern exists over the region.

32.

Levels of organochlorines were analyzed in peregrine falcon eggs that were collected from three geographical areas in the United States , the east coast (N=9), Colorado (N=5), and California (N=9), between 1986 and 1989 (Jarman et al., 1993a). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (ng/g, wet wt) for the organochlorines found in the eggs listed by place as (east coast / Colorado / California): ΣDDT (8800 / 1100 / 8800), ΣPCB (13800 / 740 / 4100), heptachlor epoxide (230 / 160 / 44), oxychlordane (530 / 150 / 200), MC-3 (29 / - / -), MC-2 (190 / 62 / 140), trans-chlordane (<0.78 / <0.03 / 6.1), MC-5 (160 / 24 / 120), cis-chlordane (1.8 / - / 2.3), trans-nonachlor (330 / 45 / 21), cis-nonachlor (290 / 73 / 13), ∑-Chlordanes (1800 / 560 / 580).

33.

Eggs from peregrine falcons (N=12, processed in Tunis, Tunesia) were collected and analyzed for organochlorine and PCB contamination by two purification methods, AOAC method and a new clean-up procedure (Driss and Bouguerra, 1987). The following are the concentrations of various contaminants (ng/g) found for 4 of the 12 eggs and are listed as A  (AOAC method) and B (New clean-up method): α-HCH: A(1.6, 0.4, 1.5, 1.1), B(1.8, 0.5, 1.9, 1.4); γ-HCH: A(3.2, 1.9, 20, 1.5), B(3.5, 2.7, 23.9, 1.8); β-HCH: A(1.2, 13, 227, 87.6), B(1.5, 14.6, 244, 87.7); HCB: A(0.76, 6.11, 15.05, 21.6), B(1.83, 15.25, 35.16, 61.65); DDE: A(824, 684, 664, 586), B(892, 726.8, 825.4, 549); DDT: A(13, ND, 8, ND), B(15, ND, 7, ND); DDD: A(16, ND, 36, 46), B(18, ND, 34, 55); heptachlor epoxide: A(ND, 2.8, 1.8, 11.2), B(ND, 3.2, 2.2, 10); dieldrin: A(18.5, 22.4, 49.5, 81.3), B(NA); PCB (µg/g): A(10.8, 8.9, 6.3, 7.1), B(19.6, 17.5, 14.7, 12.9).

34.

Peregrine falcon egg and tissue samples (N=23) were collected between 1987 and 1988 in Western Australia and South Australia to be analyzed for organochlorine residues (Falkenberg et al., 1994). The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the various contaminants analyzed: DDE (2.40), DDT (1.82), dieldrin (0.04).

35.

Organochlorine contamination was analyzed in addled and infertile eggs of reintroduced peregrine falcons taken from 1989-1993 in Wisconsin (Septon and Marks, 1996). The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of organochlorine contaminants found from eggs collected since 1991 (N=7): DDE (3.61), DDT (0.026), PCBs (Arochlor 1260 (5.71)), (Arochlor 1248 (0.446)), (Arochlor 1254 (0.16)).

36.

Eggshells and contents from 15 intact peregrine falcon eggs collected from 13 sites in three land use categories from both DDT sprayed (S) and unsprayed (U) zones in Zimbabwe, Africa between August 15 and September 18, 1990, were measured for organochlorine contamination (Hartley et al., 1995). The following are the concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) found at the sites listed: National Parks Estate - Gonarezhou (U, N=1): DDE (0.503), DDT (0.030), PCBs (0.070); Chirisa-1 (S, N=1): DDE (1.69), DDT (0.052), PCBs (0.079); Chirisa-2 (S, N=1): DDE (8.422), DDT (0.121), PCBs (0.16); Chizarira (S, N=1): DDE (22.082), DDT (1.812), TDE 0.043), PCBs (0.42); Mean values for National Park Estate: DDE (8.174), DDT (0.57), PCBs (0.182).  General Land - Harare (U, N=1): NA, eggshell fragments only; SE Lowveld (U, N=2): DDE (2.927), DDT (0.034), TDE (0.042), HCB (0.007), PCBs (0.070); Matopos (U, N=1): DDE (0.208), PCBs (0.225); Falcon (U, N=2): DDE (0.894), DDT (0.048), TDE (0.022), PCBs (0.419); Peterhouse (U, N=1): DDE (3.941), TDE (0.046), HEOD (0.036), PCBs (0.553); Raffingora (S, N=1): DDE (2.476), DDT (0.026), PCBs (0.111); Mvurwi (S, N=1): DDE (3.873), PCBs (0.078); Mean values for General Land: DDE (2.033), DDT (0.036), TDE (0.037), PCBs (0.294). Communal Land - Gwai (U, N=3): NA, eggshell fragments only; Matopos (U, N=1): DDE (0.159), TDE (0.079), HEOD (0.021), PCBs (0.500); Midlands-1 (S, N=1): DDE (2.793), DDT (0.031), PCBs (0.170); Midlands-2 (S, N=1): DDE (1.712), PCBs (0.056); Mean value for Communal Land: DDE (1.555), PCBs (0.242). There was a significant difference in the mean concentrations of DDE and ΣDDT between the eggs taken form sprayed areas (DDE = 3.927, ΣDDT = 4.011) and eggs taken from the unsprayed areas (DDE = 0.745, ΣDDT = 0.820).

37.

Five peregrine falcon eggs were collected between 1990 and 1993 from Western North Carolina after they were either incubated past term or abandoned, to be analyzed for organochlorine contamination (Augspurger and Boynton, 1998). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the five eggs for the contaminants shown: DDE (3.37), DDT (3.73), total chlordane (1.11), dieldrin (0.27), lindane (0.02).

38.

Organochlorine residue levels were analyzed in eight peregrine falcon eggs collected from the Kola Peninsula, Russia in 1991 (Henny et al., 1994). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (ng/g, wet wt) found for the pollutants shown: toxaphene (110), DDE (3500), DDD (9), DDT (22), Mirex (19), PCBs (7300), HCB (33), Lindane (18), βHCH (86), oxychlordane (33), heptachlor epoxide (39), trans-nonachlor (5), cis-chlordane (0), dieldrin (59), cis-nonachlor (2). PCDD mean concentrations (pg/g, wet wt) are as follows: Tetra-2,3,7,8 (11); Penta-1,2,3,7,8 (11), Penta-1,2,4,7,8 (not detected/quantifiable); Hexa-1,2,3,4,7,8 (3.3), Hexa-1,2,3,6,7,8 (7.2), Hexa-1,2,3,7,8,9 (0.3); Hepta-1,2,3,4,6,7,8 (0.7); Octa (2.6). PCDF mean concentrations are as follows Tetra-2,3,7,8 (30); Penta-1,2,3,7,8 (4.0), Penta-2,3,4,7,8 (27); Hexa-1,2,3,4,7,8 (3.2), Hexa-1,2,3,6,7,8 (1.8), Hexa-1,2,3,7,8,9 (0.2) Hexa-2,3,4,6,7,8 (0.9); Hepta-1,2,3,4,6,7,8 (0.2), Hepta-1,2,3,4,7,8,9 (0.3); Octa (1.4). AAH-active PCB congener mean concentrations are as follows: Tetra-77 (1.5), Tetra-81 (0.14); Penta-105 (72,) Penta-114 (6.7), Penta-118 (450), Penta-123 (1.7), Penta-126 (1.3); Hexa-156 (82), Hexa-157 (12), Hexa-167 (51), Hexa-169 (0.31); Hepta-189 (12). TEQs for PCDDs, PCDFs, and AHH-active PCB congeners concentrations are as follows and are listed as a concentration for each of the eight eggs rather than a mean: Dioxin-2,3,7,8 (30 / 5.2 / 37 / 38 / 37 / 5.3 / 4.0 / 11), Dioxin-total (41 / 9.8 / .53 55 / 54 / 11 / 6.4 / 19); Furan-2,3,7,8 (5.5 / 3.1 / 4.9 / 5.2 / 5 / 1.2 / 1.8 / 4.1), Furan-2,3,4,7,8 (25 / 8 / 31 / 32 / 32 / 11 / 5 / 19), Furan-total (32 / 26 / 39 / 40 / 40 / 13 / 7.1 / 24); PCB-77 (30 / 22 / 26 / 27 / 25 / 5.1 / 8.5 / 16), PCB-105 (180 / 54 / 210 / 210 / 220 / 39 / 33 / 54), PCB-118 (1300 / 320 / 1200 / 1300 / 1300 / 200 / 210 / 410), PCB-126 (280 / 120 / 380 / 380 / 360 / 61 / 46 / 110), PCB-169 (22 / 11 / 61 / 64 / 62 / 7 / 8 / 17), PCB-total (2100 / 640 / 2400 / 2400 / 2500 / 390 / 390 / 770); TEQs-total (2200 / 680 / 2400 / 2500 / 2600 / 410 / 410 / 810).

39.

Levels of organochlorine residues were analyzed in the egg contents of peregrine falcon eggs collected and in the blood plasma of peregrine falcon nestlings in the Canadian Arctic during 1991-1994 (Johnstone et al., 1996). Liver and breast muscle samples were also analyzed for organochlorine residues from seven peregrine chicks found dead in their nests. The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of various residues found in the eggs (N=28 eggs; 20 clutches): ΣPCB (8.31), HCB (0.03), α-BHC (ND), oxychlordane (0.21), HCE (0.27), DDE (4.45), dieldrin (0.36), DDD (0.01), DDT (0.00), mirex (0.50). Mean residue levels were below minimum critical levels, but 10% of clutches included eggs with detected levels of PCB, DDE, and dieldrin exceeding minimum critical levels.

The following are the geometric mean concentrations of various residues found in the nestlings (N=79): ΣPCB (0.12), Oxychlordane (ND), HCE (ND), DDE (0.06), dieldrin (ND), mirex (ND).

The following are the concentrations of various residues  found listed for each separate chick, (ages at death) 22 days, 24 days, 25 days, 25 days, 25 days 29 days 31 days, respectively, as (liver / breast): ∑PCB (1.58 / 0.36), (30.61 / 7.48), (37.89 / 14.96), (59.45 / 57.30), (18.80 / 24.10) (27.14 / 7.38), (3.98 / 0.35); HCE (0.08 / 0.01), (0.34 / NO (no observed analytical response)), (1.09 / 0.26), (1.35 / 0.84), (1.11 / 0.17), (0.57 / NO), (0.13 / 0.02); DDE (0.99 / 0.30), (18.30 / 5.7), (14.39 / 5.11), (18.84 / 16.95), (7.47 / 7.48), (4.90 / 2.31), (2.04 / 0.34); dieldrin (0.06 / 0.01), (0.23 / NO), (0.57 / 0.13), (0.79 / 0.19), (0.12 / NO), (0.06 / 0.01); mirex (0.07 / NO), (0.82 / NO), (1.81 / NO), (1.84 / 1.31), (NO / NO), (0.96 / 0.96), (0.79 / 0.17). Most nestlings carry a considerable load of contaminants relative to their ages.

40.

The content of organochlorines was determined in peregrine falcon eggs (N=5) collected throughout Norway in the period 1991-1997 (Herzke et al., 2002). The average PCB and average sum pesticides concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) found in the peregrine eggs were 9.1 and 2.7, respectively.

41.

One addled peregrine falcon egg from the Norgorod Region , Russia was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides in 1992 (Henny et al., 1998). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the contaminants found: DDE (27.3), DDT (0.09), β-BHC (0.17), PCBs (14.3), dieldrin (0.18), lindane (0.01), HCB (1.16), heptachlor epoxide (0.12), oxychlordane (0.12).

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

 

No data available

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

A.

Concentrations in Adults and Juveniles

1.

A necropsy of a 7-yr-resident peregrine falcon from Baltimore , Maryland was analyzed for Pb concentrations (DeMent et al. 1986). Concentrations of Pb in liver and kidney measured 0.74 µg/g and 1.40 µg/g, respectively.

2.

Between 1994 and 1998, selected tissues were removed for chemical analysis from carcasses of three peregrine falcons (two females—one fledging—and one male) found injured or dead in Big Bend National Park , Texas (Mora et al., 2002). Mercury concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) found in the liver were: fledgling female (1.79), adult male (4.2), adult female (ND).

B.

Concentration in Eggs, Eggshells, Embryos, Chicks and Nestlings

1.

Mercury residue levels were analyzed in 205 peregrine falcon eggs collected in Canada between 1965 and 1987 (Peakall et al., 1990). Eggs were collected as available rather than in a structured monitoring program and are grouped in to three time periods—1965-1972, 1973-1979, and 1980-1987—representing, respectively, the organochlorine era in North America, the immediate post-restriction era, and the current period. The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of the residues found for Falco peregrinus pealei listed by year as (1965-1972 / 1980-1986): Hg (0.869 / n.d.). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of the residues found for Falco peregrinus anatum listed by year as (1965-1972 / 1973-1979 / 1980-1987): Hg (0.347 / 0.300 / 0.446). The following are the geometric mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of the residues found for Falco peregrinus tundrius listed by year as (1965-1972 / 1973-1979 / 1980-1986): Hg (0.597 / 0.138 / 0.092).

2.

Peregrine falcon eggs collected mainly during 1971 to 1974 and also during 1981 to 1986 from inland and coastal Britain were analyzed for Hg contamination (Newton et al., 1989). The eggs were divided into groups within a range of concentrations of Hg (µg/g, dry wt) as follows: Inland – No detectable Hg (N=22); 0-1 µg/g (N=65); 1-2 (N=16); 2-3 (N=3); 3-4 (N=0); 4-5 (N=0); 5-6 (N=0); 6-7 (N=0); Geometric mean (0.21 µg/g). Coastal – No detectable Hg (N=0); 0-1 (N=10); 1-2 (N=5); 2-3 (N=1); 3-4 (N=3); 4-5 (N=2); 5-6 (N=0); 6-7 (N=1); Geometric mean (1.27 µg/g). Overall eggs from coastal sites contained significantly more Hg than did those from inland sites. Mercury concentrations in eggs were correlated with shell indices, DDE concentrations, and PCB concentrations.

3.

Mercury residue levels in the pectoral muscle of peregrine falcon nestlings found dead in northern Sweden in 1977 were analyzed (Lindberg et al., 1985). Mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) for the nestlings (N=4) for Hg were 0.24.

4.

Peregrine falcon eggs collected in the Gulf of California in 1980 and 1984 were analyzed for Hg (Porter and Jenkins, 1988). The following are the Hg residues (µg/g, wet wt) found in five eggs sampled, as well as the eggshell thickness and percent thinning, respectively: Hg (0.2, 1.1, 2.7, 4.2, 1.9), eggshell thickness (0.293, 0.295, --, 0.321, 0.356), percent thinning (16, 15, --, 8, +2).

5.

Eggs (N=2) from a Peregrine falcon collected on December 1982 in central Ecuador were analyzed for Hg (Jenny et al., 1983). One of the eggs had less than 0.05 µg/g (wet wt) Hg concentration. Mercury was not detected in the other egg.

6.

Three infertile peregrine falcon eggs, collected from nesting sites in Castile Plateau , Spain in 1985 and 1986, were analyzed for heavy metals (Hernández et al., 1988). The following are the geometric means (µg/g, wet wt): Hg (0.25), Cd (0.06), Pb (1.23), Cu (1.11), Zn (12.50).

7.

Five peregrine falcon eggs were collected between 1990 and 1993 from Western North Carolina after they were either incubated past term or abandoned, to be analyzed for Hg contamination (Augspurger and Boynton, 1998). The geometric mean concentration of Hg in the five eggs was 0.10 µg/g (wet wt).

8.

Mercury contamination was analyzed in seven addled and infertile eggs of reintroduced peregrine falcons taken from 1991-1993 in Wisconsin (Septon and Marks, 1996). The mean concentration found was 0.163 µg/g (wet wt).

C.

Concentrations in Feathers

1.

Tail feathers from peregrine falcons collected from the Swedish Museum of Natural History were analyzed for Hg (Berg et al., 1966). The mean Hg concentration (µg/g) for feathers from 1830-1840 is 2.5 (N=10). Hg concentrations for the years 1941, 1943, and 1965 (N=1) are 2.9, 56 and 42, respectively.

2.

Feathers from peregrine falcons collected from museum samples of Swedish origin starting from 1834 were analyzed for Hg (Lindberg and Odsjo, 1983). The following are the mean Hg concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) found: Group I, 1834 to 1940, N=11 (2.58); Group II, 1943, N=2 (52.50); Group III, 1964-1966, N=5 (37.90); Group IV, 1967-1970, N=10 (15.20); Group V, 1971-1977, N=39 (7.78); Group VI, 1971-1977, N=41 (17.60).

3.

Feathers from wild peregrine falcons from south and north Sweden from 1917-1999 were selected to determine the temporal trend of platinum group element (PGE), specifically Pt, Pd, and Rh, concentrations (Jensen et al., 2002). Feathers from captive peregrine falcons were used as a control group. The number of samples (N) were: wild peregrine (north), 3 (Pt, Pd, Rh); wild peregrine (south), 11 (Pt, Pd, Rh); captive peregrine falcon, 40 (Pt), 43 (Pd), 44 (Rh); peregrine from before (<) 1986, 16 (Pt), 20 (Pd), 28 (Rh). The following are the mean PGE concentrations (ng/g) in flight feathers of the peregrine listed as (wild peregrine (north), 1997-1998 / wild peregrine (south), 1989-1999 / captive peregrine, 1999 / peregrine <1986, 1917-1982): Pt (0.25 / 0.5 / 1.1 / 0.3), Pd (0.9 / 1.4 / 2.1 / 0.5), Rh (0.3 / 0.3 / 0.45 / 0.1). The analysis of feathers from 1917-1999 revealed that there is significantly higher Rh concentrations after 1986, which is when automobile catalysts started being used more, and that there is evidence for increasing PGE concentrations from 1917-1999 in peregrine falcons.

4.

Feathers (primary and rectrices) from peregrine falcons collected from seven breeding sites in southern and nine breeding sites in northern Sweden were analyzed for Hg during the nesting seasons from 1972-1978 (Lindberg and Odsjo, 1983). Feathers were assigned to one of three time periods (A, B, C) based on the molting sequence where period A represents early breeding plumage. The following are the mean Hg concentrations found (µg/g, dry wt) in both northern and southern sites and divided by sex: Southern Sweden – Males A, N=9 (9.95), B, N=1 (10.6), C, N=2 (3.6); Females A, N=2 (6.72), B, N=8 (6.34), C (NA). Northern Sweden – Males A, N=20 (17.6), B (NA), C (NA); Females A, N=1 (12.1), B (NA), C (NA). No significant correlation was found with time. The mean concentration for females did not differ significantly from males. A negative correlation was found between Hg concentration and the time period when feathers were taken, where concentrations decreased as the breeding season progressed. No significant difference was found between the types of feathers taken (primaries, rectrices). The mean concentration of Hg for the northern Swedish falcons was roughly twice as high as that for the southern Swedish falcons.

Feathers taken from nestling peregrine falcons from different regions of Sweden from 1976 to 1978 were also analyzed for Hg. The following are the concentrations found: South – 7 feathers from 3 nests (2.79); Central – 4 feathers from 1 nest (6.3); North – 12 feathers from 5 nests (8.31). Offspring in northern Sweden had a significantly higher concentration of Hg than those in the south.

Feathers taken from nestling peregrine falcons during first plumage on breeding grounds (1974-75) and during a second plumage while in captivity were analyzed for Hg and compared. The following mean concentrations were found: Finland : First plumage – 6 feathers from 3 birds (4.45), Second plumage – 2 feathers from 1 bird (0.56). Scotland : First plumage – 6 feathers from 3 birds (1.40), Second plumage - 6 feathers from 3 birds (0.65). Hg concentrations in the first plumage were significantly lower in the Scottish birds, but no difference was found in birds after one year in captivity (being fed uncontaminated food). 

5.

Moulted feathers (primaries, secondaries, and tailfeathers) collected from 8 different breeding sites of peregrine falcons in southern Scotland during April-July of 1975-1977 were analyzed for Hg (Lindberg and Mearns, 1982). Additional feather samples were taken from 5 peregrines originating from Inverness, but kept in captivity in Sweden . The following are the Hg concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) of individual feathers for the locations given: Scotland: primaries, N=11, (2.6, 1.2, 2.6, 1.2, 1.1, 7.8, 1.9, 2.7, 5.5, 0.56, 2.3), secondaries, N=7, (1.2, 0.45, 1.2, 1.0, 0.84, 3.0, 7.1), tailfeathers, N=3, (1.3, 0.73, 3.2); Captive in Sweden: primaries, N=1 (2.6), secondaries, N=5, (1.0, 0.57, 0.85, 0.70, 0.84), tailfeathers, N=6, (2.8, 0.46, 0.45, 0.56, 1.0, 0.40).

6.

Primary, secondary and rectrix feathers of adult peregrine falcons were taken from ten nests in Finland from 1975-1977 and analyzed for Hg content (Lindberg et al., 1983). The distal portion of nestling feathers was also collected. The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, dry wt.) of Hg found in the listed samples: Adults, 1975, 11 feathers from 8 individuals (21.96); Adults, 1976, 13 feathers from 10 individuals (18.40); Nestlings, 1976, 15 feathers from 12 individuals (7.52); Nestlings, 1977, 10 feathers from 8 individuals (6.08). The Hg concentrations in the nestlings were significantly lower than in the adults. The Hg concentrations in adult and nestling peregrines in Finland did not differ significantly from those in Swedish birds from the same period.

7.

Between 1994 and 1998, Hg and Se concentrations were analyzed from feathers from the carcasses of three peregrine falcons (two females—one fledgling—and one male) found injured or dead in Big Bend National Park , Texas (Mora et al., 2002). Feathers also were collected during 1997 from a fledgling female from Black Gap Wildlife Management Area, Texas to be analyzed for Hg. Big Bend Hg concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) in the feathers were: fledgling female (2.06), adult male (1.09), adult female (3.21). Selenium concentrations in the feathers of the Big Bend fledgling female and adult male were 2.15 and 0.45, respectively. Mercury concentrations in the feathers of the Black Gap female was 0.7.

IV.

Petroleum

 

No residue data available

V.

Other

1.

Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were analyzed in peregrine falcon eggs collected from three different breeding populations in Sweden in 1987-1999 (Lindberg et al., 2004). The following are the BFR mean concentrations (ng/g, lipid wt) found in the eggs, listed as (captive breeding population, N=10 / southwestern Sweden, N=24 / northern Sweden, N=18): BDE47 (0.83 / 270 / 360), BDE99 (2.7 / 1100 / 860), BDE100 (2.4 / 450 / 540), BDE153 (36 / 1300 / 1900), BDE154 (4.6 / 240 / 410), BDE183 (11.6 / 310 / 270), BDE209 (8.2 / 130 / 110), BB153 (40 / 99 / 110), HBCD (nd / 520 / 220). All BDE congeners, as well as HBCD and BB-153 were in much higher concentrations in the wild peregrine eggs than in the captive peregrine eggs. Statistically significant differences were seen for BDE-99 concentrations between the two wild falcon populations, with the southern population having higher concentrations.

 

 Peregrine Falcon Contaminant Response Data

I.

Organochlorine Contaminants

A.

Eggshell Thinning and Reproduction

1.

Eggshell thicknesses were measured from archived samples of peregrine falcon eggs (N=64) collected in Norway at different time periods beginning in 1854 (Nygard, 1983). Pesticide analysis was also conducted on the contents of three eggs collected in Norway during the period of 1976-1979. Following are the mean shell thickness index (mg/mm²) for the time periods listed: 1854-1935, N=25 (1.89), 1947-1976, N=5 (1.46). Following are the mean shell thicknesses (mm) for the time periods listed: 1860-1922, N=21 (0.359), 1947-1976, N=4 (0.292), 1977-1981, N=5 (0.314). The following are the contaminants found (µg/g, wet wt) in the three eggs collected in 1976 (N=2) and 1977 (N=1) as well as the shell thicknesses (mm): DDT (90, 32, 25); PCBs (110, 39, 51); dieldrin (7.2, 14, 0.9); Total Hg (1.6, 1.0, 0.6), Shell thickness (0.28, 0.31, NA), Shell thickness index (1.37, 1.51, NA).

2.

Eggshell thickness index and percentage thinning were measured for peregrine falcon eggs collected mainly in southern Australia from two periods: pre-1946 (dating back to 1876) and post-1945 (up to and including 1980) (Olsen and Olsen, 1985). The mean thickness indices (mg/mm²) for pre-1946 eggs and for post 1945 eggs are 1.93 (N=183) and 1.73 (N=344), respectively. The mean percentage thinning from the earlier to the later time period is 10%, with mean thinning for specific decades as follows: 1940s = 0%, 1950s = 14%, 1960s = 18%, 1970s = 28%. The thinning of eggshells was indirectly linked to DDT contamination by showing that Australian DDT use, which began in the early 1940s, tapered significantly after 1973 and was reduced even further after 1981.

3.

The shell thickness index was determined from the dried membranes of  blown peregrine falcon eggs collected from different sites in Australia from 1898 to 1977 (Olsen and Peakall, 1983). The following are the indices found per year: 1898 (1.92), 1918 (1.90), 1929 (2.04), 1940 (1.93), 1942 (1.91), 1944 (2.06), 1949 (1.77), 1950 (1.79), 1951 (1.69), 1963, N=3 (1.63, 1.59, 1.59), 1966 (1.50), 1968 (1.69), 1971 (1.77), 1973 (1.56), 1977, N=3 (1.48, 1.82, 1.47). Measurement of the thicknesses of these eggshells revealed a linear relationship between the shell thickness index and the logarithm of DDE in egg contents.

4.

Fifty-nine peregrine falcon eggs collected in the eastern Arctic between 1900 and 1940 that were preserved in museums were measured to determine the shell thickness of eggs laid before the introduction of DDT (Berger et al., 1970). These thicknesses were compared to 21 eggs collected in 1967 and 1970 from Ungava region, Canada . The mean thickness of the 59 museum eggs was 0.369mm, and the thickness of the 21 recent eggs was 0.291mm, resulting in a reduction of 21%.

5.

Eggshell weights were calculated for peregrine falcon eggs collected in Britain in 1900-1946 and compared to eggshell weights calculated for eggs collected in 1947-1967 (Ratcliffe, 1967). The mean eggshell weight (g) for eggs collected in 1900-1946  in the district containing S. England, N. England, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland (N=371) was 3.81, compared to 3.09 and 3.59 for eggs collected in 1947-1967 in the districts containing S. England, N. England, and S. Scotland (N=158), and C. and E. Scottish Highlands (N=7), respectively.

6.

Eggshell thickness and thickness index were measured for eggs collected from 1922 to 1977 in Victoria , Australia (Pruett-Jones et al., 1981). The following are the values found in given time frames and listed as (mean index (mg/mm²), mean thickness (mm)): 1922 – 1952, N=18: (1.91, NA); 1968-1969, N=4: (1.67, NA); 1975 – 1977: (1.52 (N=30), 0.263 (N=34)). Concentrations of organochlorine residues measured for the eggs taken in 1975 – 1977 revealed a significant correlation between residue concentrations and index.

7.

Variation among clutches, among eggs, and among measurements in pre-DDT eggs from two subspecies of the peregrine falcon, F. p. peregrinus and F. p. tundrius, were analyzed from eggs collected before 1931 (Falk and M?ller1990). F. p. tundrius eggs (N=48) were collected from 16 clutches in Greenland while F. p. peregrinus eggs (N=53) were collected from 19 clutches in Denmark , Sweden , Finland , and northern Germany . The mean shell thickness of 0.336 mm was the same for F. p. tundrius and F. p. peregrinus eggs. Shell thickness decreased with increasing clutch size, and the variation among clutch sizes was significant. Variability among clutches and variability among eggs was 42.3% and 49.2%, respectively, while variation among measurements was only 8.6%.

8.

Eggshell thickness was analyzed in peregrine falcon eggs collected after 1946 from all the major museum and private egg collections in Canada and the United States, and then compared to eggs collected prior to 1947 (Anderson and Hickey, 1972). The following shows the decade differences in shell thickness index (mg/mm²) for years up to 1939 listed by place as (no. decades studied / no. of eggs used / shell thickness index / significance): California (6 / 142 / 1.38 / not significant (NS)), Alaska (5 / 14 / 1.66 / NS), Interior Tundra (6 / 13 / 0.97 / NS); and for years up to 1969 listed by place as (no. decades studied / no. of eggs used / shell thickness index / significance): California (8 / 152 / 7.04 / <0.005), Alaska (6 / 15 / 5.14 / <0.01), Interior Tundra (7 / 35 / 2.74 / <0.05). The following are the mean shell thicknesses (mm) and percent thinning from the pre-1947 mean of 0.360 mm for the eggs collected listed by place as (period / shell thickness / percent thinning): Alaska, N=8 (1952-1957 / 0.293 / 19%), Alaska, N=3 (1964 / 0.277 / 23%).

9.

Eggshell thickness was analyzed along with DDE residues from peregrine falcon eggshells collected (N=30) in Great Britain between 1946-1952 (Peakall et al., 1976). The following are the DDE concentrations (µg/g, lipid) and the shell thickness index (mg/mm²) for each collected eggshell, listed by year and location as (shell thickness index / DDE): 1933, Dorset, N=1 (1.87 / 0); 1936, Dumfries, N=1 (1.93 / 0); 1946, Dumfries, N=4 (1.88 / 0) (1.88 / 0) (1.82 / 10) (1.82 / 11); 1947, Dumfries, N=2 (2.14 / 0) (2.14 / 0), Wigtownshire, N=1 (1.17 / 28), Breconshire, N=4 (1.85 / 7) (1.85 / 11) (1.65 / 9) (1.65 / 11), Sussex, N=2 (1.70 / 20) (1.70 / 22); 1948, Ayrshire, N=2 (1.59 / 39) (1.59 / 30); 1949, Ayrshire, N=2 (1.69 / 27) (1.69 / 33), Kirkcudbrightshire, N=2 (1.50 / 19) (1.50 / 13), Dumfries, N=4 (1.76 / 27) (1.76 / 25) (1.83 / 4) (1.83 / 6), Sussex, N=2 (1.59 / 19) (1.59 / 17); 1950, Ayrshire, N=1 (1.78 / 8); 1952, Radnorshire, N=2 (1.36 / 57) (1.36 / 63).

10.

Peregrine falcon eggs held at the South Australian Museum (N=69) were measured and weighed to be analyzed for shell thickness (Falkenberg et al., 1994). The 69 eggs, 36 originating from agricultural areas and 33 from non-agricultural areas, were grouped into those collected pre- and post-1947. All 69 eggs contained an average of 3.98 µg/g (wet wt) DDE and showed a 16% mean reduction in eggshell thickness compared with pre-1947 eggs. Eggs collected pre-1947 in agricultural areas had a mean shell thickness (expressed as a percentage) of 1.96 (N=16) whereas eggs collected post-1947 had a mean shell thickness of 1.65 (N=20), representing a mean decrease in eggshell thickness of 16.2%. There was no significant difference in mean eggshell thickness between pre- and post-1947 for those eggs collected in non-agricultural areas.

11.

Eggshell thickness index and percentage thinning were recorded for peregrine falcon eggs collected in Australia during four time periods; before 1947, 1949-1958, 1959-1968, and 1969-1978 (Olsen and Olsen, 1979). The following are the mean thickness indices (mg/mm²) and mean percentage thinning: Pre-1947, N=161 (1.93, - ); 1949-1958, N=29 (1.73, 10.4); 1959-1968, N=111 (1.77, 8.3); 1969-1978, N=171 (1.71, 11.4). Thinning commenced in 1947-1949 and corresponded temporally with the introduction of DDT use in Australia .

12.

Eggshell thickness index and percentage thinning were recorded for peregrine falcon eggs collected in Australia during two time periods; before and after 1947 (Olsen et al., 1993). The following are the mean thickness indices found: Pre-1947, N=245 (1.91), Post-1947, N=503 (1.72). The change in thickness represents a 10% decrease and is indirectly tied to the introduction of DDT to Australian agriculture and its broad use beginning in 1946. The following are mean thicknesses for specific time periods after the introduction of DDT into Australia: 1947-1951, N=20 (1.75), 1952-1956, N=13 (1.81), 1957-1961, N=26 (1.80), 1962-1966, N=64 (1.73), 1967-1971, N=130 (1.83), 1972-1976, N=122 (1.69), 1977-1981, N=92 (1.57), 1981-1986, N=24 (1.53), >1986, N=9 (1.81).

13.

Five peregrine falcon eggshells were collected in California from 1948 to 1950 and were analyzed for the presence of DDE in the dried membranes and then compared to eggshell thickness (Peakall, 1974). To determine DDE in the egg contents, a ratio of DDE in the egg contents to DDE in the membranes was calculated. The following are the concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of DDE in the egg contents calculated from the five eggshells found: 7, 3, 9, 30, 4. These residue levels were then compared with shell thickness. The thickness index (mg/mm²) for the five eggshells are as follows: 1.66, 1.87, 1.42, 1.46, 1.64. The DDE found in peregrine falcon eggs in sufficient enough concentrations, at least as early as 1948, accounting for the eggshell thinning.

14.

Shell thickness indices were determined from addled or deserted peregrine falcon eggs collected throughout Britain (N=550, clutches=469) from 1963 to 1986 (apart for one egg in 1961) (Newton et al., 1989). The following shell indices (mg/mm²) were found, listed by time period: 1961-1970: Northern England (Inland), N=9 (1.56); Southern Scotland (Inland), N=32 (1.46); Southern Highland Fringe (Inland), N=5 (1.54); Central and eastern Highlands (Inland), N=21 (1.75); Northern and western Highlands (Inland), N=2 (1.47). 1971-1980: Wales (Inland), N=6 (1.60), (Coastal), N=2 (1.74); Northern England (Inland), N=25 (1.71); Southern Scotland (Inland), N=72 (1.72), (Coastal), N=9 (1.61); Southern Highland Fringe (Inland), N=24 (1.74), (Coastal), N=11 (1.54); Central and eastern Highlands (Inland), N=40 (1.73); Northern and western Highlands (Inland), N=15 (1.58), (Coastal), N=9 (1.62). 1981-1986: Southwest England (Coastal), N=2 (1.87); Wales (Inland), N=4 (1.81); Northern England (Inland), N=31 (1.78); Southern Scotland (Inland), N=46 (1.74), (Coastal), N=5 (1.65); Southern Highland Fringe (Inland), N=17 (1.79), (Coastal), N=14 (1.62); Central and eastern Highlands (Inland), N=43 (1.72); Northern and western Highlands (Inland), N=8 (1.74), (Coastal), N=5 (1.39). A significant negative correlation was found between shell index and the log of DDE concentration, and DDE was found to significantly affect productivity at geometric mean concentrations greater than 3 µg/g (wet wt) in the egg.

Shell thickness indices were determined in single peregrine eggs from first and repeat clutches obtained in the same territory in the same year. The following are the concentrations found, listed as (first / repeat): 1966: (1.25 / - ); 1967: 1.26 / 1.31); 1968: (1.24 / 1.49).

Peregrine falcon eggs collected from Ireland were analyzed for eggshell thicknesses as well. The shell indices found for inland sites (N=4) and for coastal sites (N=11) were 1.70 and 1.64, respectively.

15.

Eggshell thickness index was determined for 9 modern peregrine falcon whole eggshells collected in Monks Wood between 1965 and 1977 and for 12 older shells selected from museum specimens (Cooke, 1979). The mean shell thickness index (mg/mm²) for the modern and the old egg shells was 1.65 and 1.84, respectively. The latter was identical to that for 509 shells examined previously for the period 1901-1946.

16.

Eggshell thickness index was calculated for three populations of Alaskan peregrine falcons during 1967-1970 (Cade et al., 1971). The thickness index mean (mg/mm²), and percent thickness reduction are as follows: Colville, 1967-1969, N=23 (1.48, 21.7%); Yukon and interior, 1968-1969, N=14 (1.48, 16.8%); Amchitka , 1969-1970, N=11 (1.73, 7.5%). There was a highly significant negative correlation between shell thickness and DDE content in peregrine eggs.

17.

Shell thicknesses and the percent of thinning based on pre-1946 values, along with DDE concentrations, were analyzed in peregrine falcon eggs in Alaska during 1968-1973 (Peakall et al., 1975). The following are the mean concentrations (µg/g, dry wt) of DDE residues, the mean shell index (mg/mm²) and the % of thinning listed by place as (year / DDE / shell index / thinning): Colville River, N=11 (1968 / 193.9 / 1.42 / 24.9), N=5 (1969 / 163.8 / 1.53 / 23.5), N=7 (1971 / 210.8 / 1.49 / 21.2); Yukon River, N=11 (1968 / 105.6 / 1.49 / 16.8); Tanana River, N=3 (1969 / 344.3 / 1.42 / 20.2), N=3 (1973 / 302.7 / 1.44 / 19.1); Amchitka, N=6 (1969 / 25.0 / 1.74 / 7.4), N=6 (1970 / 39.8 / 1.73 / 8.0), N=3 (1971 / 24.1 / 1.73 / 8.0), N=7 (1973 / 26.3 / 1.72 / 8.3).

Also analyzed for shell index and DDE residues were three clutches of peregrine eggs. Eggs from a bird taken as a nestling in 1968 had DDE levels of 7.8 µg/g (dry wt) and a shell index of 1.82 in 1972. Eggs from a Yukon River bird taken as a nestling in 1966 (raised on a diet of fresh fowl and coturnix quail) had DDE levels of 9.0 µg/g in 1972 and 7.7 µg/g in 1973, with shell index figures of 1.79 and 1.80, respectively.

18.

Peregrine falcon eggs from nesting sites on Amchitka Island , Alaska from 1969 to 1971 were analyzed for DDE and eggshell thickness (White et al. 1973). Two of the eggs collected in 1969 contained live embryos, and one collected in 1971 was freshly abandoned. The remainder were either addled or contained dead embryos. The following are mean DDE concentrations (µg/g, wet wt. / lipid wt.): 1969, N=6 (3.99 / 126.0); 1970, N=5 (6.96 / 236.0); 1971, N=3 (1.89 / 60.39). Eggshell thickness from the 14 eggs was an average of 7.5% thinner than pre-DDT measurements.

19.

Eggshells and shell fragments from peregrine falcons collected in Greenland in 1972 were analyzed for evidence of shell thinning (Walker et al., 1973). The mean thickness from the 2 unhatched eggshells from 2 different females and shell fragments from 7 hatched eggs from 4 different females (total N=9) was 0.298 mm, which is 14% lower than the mean thickness of 42 eggs collected from Greenland before 1940. Organochlorine residues from 2 different unhatched eggs were obtained as well. One egg, which had no apparent development, had concentrations (µg/g, lipid) for DDE and PCB of 364 and 403, respectively. The other egg, which contained a large embryo that had died within a week of hatching, had concentrations of DDE and PCB of 300 and 210, respectively.

20.

Eggshell thickness and thickness index were measured for unhatched peregrine falcon eggs collected in Sweden during 1972-1976, as well as for eggs from museum collections (Odsjö and Lindberg, 1977). The total amount of eggs collected was separated into eggs collected before and after 1947. The period 1861-1943 (N=83) had a mean thickness (mm) of 0.347 and the period 1948-1976 (N=20) had a mean thickness of 0.305, which results in a 11.4% decrease. The mean thickness index (mg/mm²) for the periods 1861-1943 and 1948-1976 were 1.871 and 1.539, respectively, which results in a 17.6% decrease.

During 1970-1976, nine unhatched eggs collected in Finland had an average thickness of 0.296 and an average thickness index of 1.553, which when compared to the eggs from Sweden in 1861-1943, had and average decrease of 14.7% and 17.0%, respectively.

21.

Eggshell thinning was analyzed for peregrine falcon eggs collected in Colorado and northern New Mexico between 1973 and 1979 (Enderson et al., 1982). The mean shell thickness of 0.032 mm from the eggs collected (N=141) and the mean shell thickness of  0.348 mm for eggs laid by captives from the region in 1978 averaged 16% thinner and 13% thinner, respectively, than the mean thickness of 0.359 mm for pre-1947 eggs.

22.

Eggshells (N=294) from peregrine falcon eggs collected from Colorado and northern New Mexico between 1973-1985, along with eggshell fragments collected from nest ledges in Utah in 1985, were analyzed for  thickness (Enderson et al., 1988). The contents of the eggs collected from Colorado and northern New Mexico that failed to hatch (N=78) were analyzed for DDE residues and then compared to shell thickness. Of the 294 eggshells collected from Colorado and northern New Mexico, mean eggshell thickness for those collected between 1973-1976 (N=34) was 0.301 mm with membranes. For the remaining eggs collected between 1977 and 1985 (N=206), only the 1977 mean concentration of 0.292 mm was significantly different from the means of later years, which ranged from 0.306 mm in 1980 to 0.325 in 1982. Recently, mean eggshell thickness has averaged about 0.317 mm (12% thinner than the pre-1947 mean of 0.359 mm).

Eggshell fragments collected in Utah show differences in thickness by year and habitat. Prior to 1985, eggshell fragments from desert scrub habitat had a mean thickness of 0.341 mm, whereas those collected in 1985 had a mean of 0.310 mm. For montane habitat above 2300 m, eggshell fragments collected prior to 1985 had a mean thickness of 0.315 and those collected in 1985 had a mean of 0.284. Mean eggshell thickness in the desert scrub below 1200 m was significantly thicker than that of the montane habitat. Mean eggshell thicknesses in desert scrub habitat prior to 1985, as well as in 1985, were significantly thicker than that of higher elevations. For Colorado and New Mexico eggshells, there was no observed pattern between eggshell thinning and elevation or habitat.

For the contents of the eggs that failed to hatch that were analyzed for DDE, there was no statistically significant relationship in the data between eggshell thickness and DDE residues in the egg contents.

23.

Peregrine falcon eggshells from 15 eyries in the Gulf of California and one eyrie on the Pacific Coast were collected during 1976-1984 and measured for thickness (Porter and Jenkins, 1988). Eggs collected in 1980 and 1984 were also analyzed for organochlorines, heavy metals, and other chemical elements. Eggshells of 8 eggs from 7 eyries and fragments of 22 eggshells from 13 eyries were measured for thickness and are as follows, listed by (thickness (mm) / % thinning): entire eggshell = (0.260 / 25), (0.295 / 15), (0.214 / 39), (0.293 / 16), (0.321 / 8), (0.356 / 2), (0.251 / +2), (0.313 / 10), (0.271 / 22), (0.262 / 25), (0.239 / 31), (0.313 / 10), (0.287 / 18), (0.282 / 19), (0.268 / 23); eggshell fragments = (0.295 / 15), (0.341 / 2), (0.338 / 3), (0.345 / 0), (0.270 / 22), (0.323 / 7), (0.321 / 8), (0.305 / 12), (0.300 / 14), (0.304 / 13), (0.273 / 22), (0.301 / 14), (0.319 / 8), (0.326 / 6), (0.284 / 18), (0.303 / 13), (0.262 / 25), (0.286 / 18), (0.289 / 17), (0.345 / 0), (0.324 / 7). The following are the organochlorine and mercury residues (µg/g, wet wt) found in five eggs sampled, as well as the eggshell thickness and percent thinning, respectively: DDE (2.4, 10.5, 25.0, 12.9, 13.0), PCB (0.5, 2.3, 10.6, 3.0, 2.8), Hg (0.2, 1.1, 2.7, 4.2, 1.9), eggshell thickness (0.293, 0.295, --, 0.321, 0.356), percent thinning (16, 15, --, 8, +2).

24.

Eggshell thickness and fledging success for peregrine falcons were analyzed from data collected in Arizona from 1978 to 1985 (Ellis et al., 1989). By 1983, eggshell samples for 26 breeding attempts representing 17 territories were obtained for analysis. Only nestlings observed within one week of fledging were counted as fledged. The following are the results found listed by year and site as (mean shell thickness (mm) / percent thinning (based on the mean thickness of 0.369 mm for 100 eggs collected prior to 1947 in California) / young fledged): 1978: A, N=20 (.307 / 16.8 / 2), B, N=20 (.368 / 0 / 0), C, N=10 (.353 / 4.3 / 3), D, N=10 (.289 / 21.7 / 1), E, N=10 (.314 / 14.9 / 2); 1979: F, N=15 (.316 / 14.4 / 3); 1980: C, N=15 (.348 / 5.7 / 2), G, N=15 (.314 / 5.7 / 2), H, N=16 (.292 / 20.9 / 2), I, N=15 (.302 / 18.2 / 0), J, N=15 (.289 / 21.7 / 3); 1981: K, N=15 (.315 / 14.6 / 1), C, N=10 (.344 / 6.8 / 3), L, N=25 (.283 / 23.3 / 4), G, N=10 (.314 / 14.9 / 4), J, N=10 (.300 / 18.7 / unknown); 1982: M, N=10 (.361 / 2.2 / 3), E, N=4 (.335 / 9.2 / 0), L, N=10 (.313 / 15.2 / 2), N, N=10 (.299 / 19.0 / 3), D, N=10 (.329 / 10.8 / 3), O, N=10 (.295 / 20.1 / 3), A, N=10 (.296 / 19.8 / 1); 1983: P, N=10 (.327 / 11.4 / 2), L, N=10 (.326 / 11.7 / 1), Q, N=10 (.298 / 19.0 / 2). The average shell thinning of 14.2% for the Arizona eggshells collected was somewhat below the critical level of 17-20% which has been associated with population declines.

25.

Eggshell thickness and organochlorine residues were evaluated in addled peregrine falcon eggs, specifically F. p. anatum and F. p. tundrius, collected in Alaska during 1979-1984 and in random eggs (N=20) collected in Alaska in 1984 (Ambrose et al., 1988). In 1984, random (N=4) and addled (N=4) eggs showed no significant difference in eggshell thickness with mean thicknesses of 0.328 mm and 0.323 mm, respectively, and showed no significant difference in DDE residues with mean concentrations (µg/g, wet wt) of 8.3 and 8.2, respectively. Random (N=7) and addled (N=6) eggs of F. p. anatum showed no significant difference in eggshell thickness with mean thicknesses of 0.316 mm and 0.307 mm, respectively, and showed no significant difference in DDE residues with mean concentrations of 12.5 and 12.6, respectively. The following are the mean concentrations of various organochlorines, as well as mean eggshell thickness (mm) for both random and addled eggs for all years, listed as (F. p. tundrius, N=19 / F. p. anatum, N=31): DDE (9.3 / 10.6), no. of eggs with ≥0.10 DDT (6 / 2), dieldrin (0.25 / 0.16), heptachlor epoxide (0.24 / 0.33), oxychlordane (0.12 / 0.14), PCB (2.04 / 2.65), eggshell thickness (0.311 / 0.313).

26.

Infertile or addled eggs and eggshell fragments (N=39) of peregrine falcons were collected at mid-Atlantic and urban breeding sites between 1981-1984 to be analyzed for shell thickness and Ratcliffe Index (Gilroy and Barclay, 1988). The following are mean measurements found, listed by year as (place / eggshell thickness (mm) / Ratcliffe Index): 1981, N=4 (Baltimore / 0.348 / 1.878), N=2 (Brigantine / 0.364 / 1.886), N=1 (Sea Isle City / 0.350 / --), 1982, N=9 (Baltimore / 0.356 / 1.910), N=1 (Brigantine / 0.366 / 1.883), N=1 (Manahawkin / 0.268 / --), N=4 (Sedge Island / 0.287 / 1.464), N=1 (Sea Isle City / 0.312 / --), 1983 N=4 (Baltimore / 0.368 / 1.914), N=2 (Manahawkin / 0.306 / 1.629), 1984, N=2 (Comm. Barry Bridge / 0.372 / 1.775), N=2 (Manahawkin / 0.310 / 1.522), N=1 (Sedge Island / 0.344 / 1.694), N=1 (Sea Isle City / 0.311 / 1.664), N=1 (South Marsh Island / 0.348 / 1.469), N=1 (Swan Bay / 0.383 / 1.768), N=2 (Tuckahoe / 0.305 / 1.415). The mean eggshell thickness of 0.340 and the Ratcliffe Index of 1.75 for the 1981-1984 samples were compared to the means of 0.375 and 1.99, respectively, for pre-1947 eggs of eastern peregrines, resulting in a thinning of 9.4% and 12.1%. A comparison of year and site for mean eggshell thickness indicated that the means were not significantly different among years but were among sites. Residue levels found in the sample eggs indicated that there were significant correlations between eggshell thickness and DDE and DDT and metabolites, and between Ratcliffe Index and all contaminants (DDE, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonchlor, cis-nonchlor, endrin, toxaphene, and PCBs). Comparing year and site means for DDE and all other contaminants indicates that a given site mean depended on year.

27.

Shell thickness measurements were made on 78 peregrine falcon eggs collected from Rankin Inlet, Northwest Territories, Canada from 1981-1986 (Court et al., 1990). The mean shell thickness of 0.303 mm was 15.8% thinner than the average pre-DDT shell thickness of 0.360 mm.

28.

Eggshell thickness was determined for two eggs from a peregrine falcon collected on December 1982 in central Ecuador were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants (Jenny et al., 1983). The eggshell thicknesses measured (mm) for the eggs were 0.399 and 0.363 with membrane and 0.329 and 0.288.

29.

Eggshell thickness was determined from whole eggs and eggshell fragments collected from peregrine falcons nesting in New Jersey from 1985 to 1988 (Steidl et al., 1991). The mean thickness of 0.313 mm (N=58) averaged 16.4% below pre-DDT levels from pre-1947.

30.

Addled peregrine falcon eggs were collected from the East Coast of the United States in 1986-1988 to compare DDE and PCB concentrations (N=37) with shell thicknesses (N=112) (Burns et al., 1994). The geometric means (µg/g, wet wt) of DDE and PCB found in the eggs were 7.8 and 8.9, respectively. The geometric mean shell thickness of all the eggs collected between 1985 and 1988 was 0.32 mm, or 11% thinner than the pre-1947 mean thickness of 0.36 mm. DDE and PCB levels were below, while the shell thickness was above, threshold levels considered critical for reproductive success. When other organochlorine residue levels found are compared with earlier data collected, there was no indication of detectable changes in shell thickness over the decade.

31.

Eggshell thinning was determined for addled and infertile eggs of reintroduced peregrine falcons taken from 1989-1993 in Wisconsin (Septon and Marks, 1996). Thinning was compared to pre-DDT era museum specimens of Wisconsin origin. The following are the Ratcliffe thickness indices (mg/mm²) found for the years indicated: Museum specimen – 1911, N=1 (1.997), 1933, N=5 (2.014, 2.116, 2.041, 1.732, 2.148); Average for pre-DDT specimens, N=6 (2.008). Post-DDT eggs – 1989, N=2 (1.898, 1.947), 1991, N=3 (1.839, 1.663, 1.719), 1992, N=1 (1.622), 1993, N=3 (1.770, 1.866, 1.933); Average for post-DDT eggs, N=9 (1.806). Although the eggs from the 1989-1991 period were on the average 10% thinner than the pre-DDT eggs, the Ratcliffe thickness index for the newer eggs did not significantly change from the historic indices.

32.

Eggshell thicknesses and eggshell thickness indices were determined in a total of 15 intact peregrine falcon eggs collected from 13 sites in three land use categories from both DDT sprayed (S) and unsprayed (U) zones in Zimbabwe, Africa between August 15 and September 18, 1990, (Hartley et al., 1995). The following are the eggshell thicknesses (mm) and indexes (mg/mm²), respectively, found at the sites listed: National Parks Estate - Gonarezhou (U, N=1): 0.342, 1.654; Chirisa 1 (S, N=1): 0.355, 1.815; Chirisa 2 (S, N=1): 0.320, 1.601; Chizarira (S, N=1) 0.268, 1.352; Mean values for National Park Estate = 0.321, 1.605. General Land - Harare (U, N=1): 0.318, NA; SE Lowveld (U, N=2): 0.344, 1.770; Matopos (U, N=1): 0.372, 1.793; Falcon (U, N=2): 0.340, 1.808; Peterhouse (U, N=1): 0.279, 1.425; Raffingora (S, N=1): 0.368, 1.831; Mvurwi (S, N=1): 0.312, 1.713; Mean values for General Land = 0.333, 1.723. Communal Land - Gwai (U, N=3): 0.298, NA; Matopos (U, N=1): 0.330, 1.763; Midlands 1 (S, N=1): 0.323, 1.656; Midlands 2 (S, N=1): 0.370, 1.854; Mean value for Communal Land = 0.329, 1.758. Both shell thickness and index of individual eggs were negatively correlated with DDE and ∑DDT concentrations, while the shell-indices of the 1990 eggs were 2-29% lower than estimated pre-DDT mean index of 1.90. There was little difference in mean shell thickness was apparent between sprayed and unsprayed areas, despite the difference in residue content.

33.

Five peregrine falcon eggs were collected between 1990 and 1993 from Western North Carolina after they were either incubated past term or abandoned, to be analyzed for shell thickness (Augspurger and Boynton, 1998). Arithmetic mean eggshell thicknesses were 0.339 mm for the five whole eggs. When the shell fragments from four additional nests were included, the mean eggshell thicknesses were 0.334 mm. These reported values are approximately 7% thinner than normal, pre-DDT era eggshells.

34.

Eggshell thinning was determined for eight peregrine falcon eggs collected from the Kola Peninsula, Russia in 1991 (Henny et al., 1994). The mean eggshell thickness of 0.310 mm represents a reduction of 11.4% when compared with 0.350 mm for pre-DDT era Swedish peregrine eggs between 1861 and 1946.

35.

Levels of eggshell thinning of peregrine falcon eggs collected in the Canadian Arctic during 1991-1994 were determined (Johnstone et al., 1996). The mean thickness of 0.306 mm for eggshells collected (N=54 clutches) was 15% thinner than the average pre-DDT shell thickness of 0.360 mm.

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

 

No response data available

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

 

No response data available

IV.

Petroleum

 

No response data available

 

 

References for Peregrine Falcons

Anderson, D. W. and J. J. Hickey. 1972. Eggshell changes in certain North American birds. Proceedings of the International Ornithological Congress 15:514-540.

Ambrose, R. E., C. J. Henny, R. E. Hunter, and J. A. Crawford. 1988. Organochlorines in Alaskan peregrine falcon eggs and their current impact on productivity. Pages 385-393 in T. J. Cade, ed. Peregrine Falcon Populations: Their management and recovery. Boise, ID USA.

Augspurger, T. and A. Boynton. 1998. Organochlorines and mercury in peregrine falcon eggs from western North Carolina. Journal of Raptor Research 32:251-254.

Blood, D. 2001. Peregrine falcon in Hinterland Who’s Who. Canada Wildlife Service, Minister of Public Works and Government Services, Canada. 6 pp.

Bollengier, R.M., J.Baird, L.P. Brown, T.J. Cade, M.G. Edwards, D.C. Hagar, B. Halla, E. McCaffrey. 1979. Eastern Peregrine falcon recovery plan. USFWS publication, Washington, D.C. 148 pp.

Berg, W., A. Johnels, B. Sjöstrand, and T. Westermark. 1966. Mercury content in feathers of Swedish birds from the past 100 years. Oikos 17:71-83.

Berger, D. D., D. W. Anderson, J. D. Weaver, and R. W. Risebrough. 1970. Sell thinning in eggs of Ungava pergrines. Canadian Field-Naturalist 84:265-267.

Burns, S. A., W. M. Jarman, T. J. Cade, L. F. Kiff, and B. J. Walton. 1994. Organochlorines and eggshell thinning in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Eastern United States. Pages 709-716 in B.-U. Meyburg and R. D. Chancellor, eds. Raptor Conservation Today. WWGBNP/The Pica Press.

Cade, T. J., C. M. White, and J. R. Haugh. 1968. Peregrine and pesticides in Alaska. Condor 70:170-178.

Cade, T. J., J. L. Lincer, C. M. White, D. G. Roseneau, and L. G. Swartz. 1971. DDE residues and eggshell changes in Alaskan falcons and hawks. Science 172:955-957.

Cade, T.J. 1982. The falcons of the world. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 188 pp.

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