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BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES

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Biological Characteristics   

Species

Adult male Aythya affinis is 40.4-45.1 cm in length, and has a mass of approximately 700 to 1200 g (Austin et al., 1998).  Wingspan is 29 inches.  The male has a gray back, white belly, black breast, glossy purple head, and yellow eyes.  The head is somewhat angular compared to a greater scaup (Niering, 1998).  The female is dark brown with a white mask near the bill, size ranges from 39.1-43.4 cm in length, and weight ranges from 600 to 1100 g (Austin et al., 1998).  Both sexes have a pale blue bill with a small black tip; immatures are similar to adult females (Peterson 1980).

Status in Estuaries

This species nests on land near marshes, ponds, and prairie potholes, and winters on lakes, ponds, bays and estuaries (Ehrlich et al., 1988; Kaufman 1996).  The nest is built from grass, lined with a small amount of down (Ehrlich et al., 1988).  Clutch size ranges from 6-15 olive-buff eggs, although more may be found in nests where more than 1 female has laid eggs.  Females tend to the precocial young, who are able to swim and feed themselves (Kaufman 1996).  The maximum age of a lesser scaup recorded in nature is 18 years and 4 months.

Abundance and Range

Lesser scaup breed in western North America, Alaska and Canada to Arizona and Colorado, and winter in the southern and western U.S., the Great Lakes, the Gulf and Atlantic coasts, and South America (Niering 1998; Kaufman 1996).  The heaviest wintering concentrations in the U.S. are found along the Gulf coast.  In winter, small groups are found on fresh water in the north, and large flocks are found on salt water and on lakes in the south (Niering 1998).  One of the most abundant North American ducks (Kaufman 1996), with an average population size of 5,512,445 between 1955 and 1995.  Potential recent declines of some breeding populations have been documented (Austin et al., 1998).

Site Fidelity

Migrates in flocks, using traditional staging and stopover areas.  Females more faithful to breeding sites (20-36%) than males (4.9-9%).  Female yearlings are more likely to return to natal site to breed than males.  Some fidelity to wintering areas has been demonstrated (Austin et al., 1998). 

Ease of Census

Moderate; although they concentrate in conspicuous flocks in the winter, these flocks are sometimes mixed with greater scaups, which are not easily distinguished (Austin et al., 1998).

Feeding Habits

The lesser scaup feeds on amphipods, other aquatic invertebrates including zebra mussels in the Great Lakes, and aquatic vegetation including leaves and stems of sea lettuce, pondweeds, and wild celery, and seeds of pondweeds, sedges, and grasses (Ehrlich et al., 1988; Kaufman 1996).  Forages by diving, swimming under water, and dabbling, occasionally at night (Kaufman 1996). 


Lesser Scaup Contaminant Exposure Data

I.

Organochlorine Contaminants

1.

Various tissues of 8 lesser scaup collected from Lake Erie, Ohio between 1964-1965 were analyzed for DDE, DDD, DDT, and Total DDT (Dindal and Peterle, 1968).  Mean concentrations were 1.01, 0.23, 0.35, and 1.91 μg/g wet weight, respectively, in the wing, 1.35, 0.02, 0.84, and 2.21 μg/g, in breast feathers; 20.06, 0.35, ND, and 20.41 μg/g in the uropygial gland; 8.68, ND, 4.03, and 12.71 μg/g in breast skin; 0.89, 0.07, 0.06, 1.02 μg/g in breast muscle; 2.56, 0.30, 0.30, and 3.19, μg/g in liver; 3.00, 0.58, 0.27 and 3.85 μg/g in pancreas; 2.91, 0.56, ND, and 3.47 μg/g in kidney; and 3.21, 0.72, 0.32, and 4.25 μg/g in brain.

2.

Wild-caught lesser scaup were released into a marsh the day it was sprayed with 0.2 kg/ha DDT in 1964 (Dindal 1970).  Four scaup were recaptured after 30 days and analyzed for total DDT concentrations.  Mean concentrations of total DDT were in 0.9 μg/g ww in breast feathers, 8.4 μg/g in breast skin, 11.4 μg/g in uropygial gland, 1.1 μg/g in breast muscle, 2.1 μg/g in heart, 0.9 μg/g in gizzard, 0.9 μg/g in proventriculus, 0.6 μg/g in small intestine, 1.0 μg/g in large intestine, 1.2 μg/g in pancreas, 2.9 μg/g in liver, 3.2 μg/g in gall bladder, 1.4 μg/g in kidney, 0.9 μg/g in brain, 0.5 μg/g in thyroid gland, 14.3 μg/g in adrenal gland, 0.4 μg/g in spleen, and 1.8 μg/g in lung.  The experiment was repeated in 1965, except that scaup were released into the marsh 300 days after application of the pesticide.  In 1965, 3 scaup were collected 30 days after being released into the marsh, and mean concentrations of total DDT were 1.8 μg/g in breast feathers, 0.9 μg/g in uropygial gland, 0.1 μg/g in breast muscle, 0.2 μg/g in liver, <0.09 μg/g in gall bladder, 0.1 μg/g in kidney, 0.1 μg/g in brain, and 0.7 μg/g in adrenal gland.  Total DDT was not detected in breast skin, heart, gizzard, proventriculus, small intestine, large intestine, pancreas, thyroid gland, spleen, and lung.

3.

Six lesser scaup were collected from Iowa in 1970, and analyzed for dieldrin, DDE, DDD, DDT, total DDT, and heptachlor epoxide (Johnson et al., 1971).  Mean concentrations in muscle (μg/g wet weight) were 5, 42, ND, ND, 42, and ND, respectively.  Mean concentrations in liver were 24, 87, ND, ND, 87, and 2 μg/g.  Mean concentrations in fat were 98, 480, 17, 20, 517, and 13 μg/g.

4.

Six male and 6 female lesser scaup were collected from San Francisco Bay between 1980 and 1981, their wings pooled by sex, and analyzed for DDE, dieldrin, HCB, and total PCBs (Ohlendorf and Miller., 1984).  Concentrations were 0.36, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.17 μg/g wet weight, respectively, in males, and 0.05, ND, ND, and 0.25 μg/g in females. 

5.

Seven scaup were collected from a wintering population on the Detroit River in 1981 (Smith et al., 1985).  Mean carcass concentrations (μg/g wet weight) were 0.10 HCB, 0.045 α-BHC, 0.0023 β-BHC, 0.0063 γ-BHC, 0.0012 δ-BHC, 0.0037 heptachlor epoxide, 0.11 trans-chlordane, 0.18 cis-chlordane, 0.16 trans-nonachlor, 0.035 cis-nonachlor, 0.38 DDE, 0.48 DDD, 0.023 DDT, 10.0 total PCBs, 0.47 total trichlorobiphenyls, 0.64 total tetrachlorobiphenyls, 0.91 total pentachlorobiphenyls, 3.8 total hexachlorobiphenyls, 3.8 total heptachlorobiphenyls, 0.82 total octochlorobiphenyls, and 0.046 total nonachlorobiphenylsTotal dichlorobiphenyls were not detected.

6.

Seven scaup were collected from Severn Sound, Lake Huron in 1991 and pooled for analysis (Martin et al., 1995).  Concentrations in breast muscle were 0.005 μg/g wet weight DDE and 0.018 μg/g total PCBs. Cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, HCB, OCS, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, β -HCH, mirex, photomirex, trans-nonachlor, and cis-nonachlor were not detected.

7.

Four scaup collected from the Great Lakes between 1993-1994 were determined to be aquatic macrophyte consumers, and 11 scaup were determined to be zebra mussel consumers using stable isotope analysis (Mazak et al., 1997).  Mean concentrations in fat of macrophyte consumers were 0.0014 μg/g lipid weight HCB, 0.002 μg/g PCB Congener 28, and 0.012 μg/g PCB 149.  Mean concentrations in fat of zebra mussel consumers ranged from 0.023-0.030 μg/g HCB, 0.002-0.004 μg/g PCB Congener 28, and 0.009-0.014 μg/g PCB 149 depending on the collection location.

8.

Fifteen individuals collected from Maumee Bay, Lake Erie between Michigan and Ohio between 1991 and 1993 contained 1.35 μg/g wet weight total PCBs, 0.15 DDE μg/g, and 0.06 μg/g dieldrin in carcass (Custer and Custer, 2000). 

9.

In 17 individuals collected from Indiana Harbor Canal in 1994, geometric mean carcass concentrations ranged from ND-0.013 μg/g wet weight cis-nonachlor, 0.019-0.079 μg/g dieldrin, ND-0.011 μg/g HCB, 0.018-0.036 μg/g heptachlor epoxide, 0.013-0.018 μg/g oxychlordane, ND-0.011 μg/g DDD, 0.146-0.195 μg/g DDE, ND-0.018 μg/g DDT, and 0.008-0.02 μg/g trans-nonachlor, depending on age and month of collection (Custer et al., 2000a).  Only DDE was detected in the carcasses of 5 reference scaup from a game farm, at a mean concentration of 0.007 μg/g.  In Indian Harbor Canal scaup, carcass concentrations ranged from 1.275-4.887 μg/g total PCBs, and 0.0006-0.0016 μg/g in PCB congeners 77, 0.0365-0.0819 μg/g 105, 0.0027-0.0083 μg/g 114, 0.0776-0.127 μg/g 118/106, ND-0.0003 μg/g 126, 0.0111-0.0356 μg/g 128, 0.0824-0.1755 μg/g 138, 0.0073-0.0236 μg/g 156, 0.0020-0.0052 μg/g 157, 0.0038-0.0133 μg/g 158, 0.0002-0.0006 μg/g 166, 0.0033-0.0105 μg/g 167, 0.0126-0.0564 μg/g 170, 0.0009-0.0036 μg/g 189, and 133.9-327.5 μg/g PCB TEQs (Safe).  In carcasses of reference scaup, mean concentrations were 0.040 μg/g total PCBs, and 0.0002 μg/g in PCB congeners 77, 0.0010 μg/g 105, 0.0001 μg/g 114, 0.0016 μg/g 118/106, ND μg/g 126, 0.0003 μg/g 128, 0.0016 μg/g 138, 0.0006 μg/g 156, 0.0001 μg/g 157, 0.0001 μg/g 158, 0.0001 μg/g 166, 0.0001 μg/g 167, 0.0002 μg/g 170, 0.0001 189, and 6.5 PCB TEQs (Safe).  In carcasses of Indiana Harbor Canal scaup, geometric mean concentrations ranged from 2.0-5.2 pg/g 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 3.5-10.0 pg/g 1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDD, ND-7.7 pg/g 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDD, 4.0-13.5 pg/g 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDD, ND-5.5 pg/g 1,2,3,7,8,9-HexaCDD, 4.2-14.5 pg/g 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDD, ND-14.7 pg/g OCDD, 3.6-4.2 pg/g 2,3,7,8-TCDF, ND-6.5 pg/g 1,2,3,7,8-PentaCDF, 11.5-19.1 pg/g 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF, ND-6.5 pg/g 1,2,3,4,7,8-HexaCDF, ND 1,2,3,6,7,8-HexaCDF, ND-7.0 pg/g 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HeptaCDF, and 13.4-28.8 pg/g PCDD/PCDF TEQs (Safe).  None of these analytes were detected in carcasses of reference lesser scaup.

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

 

No direct exposure data available.

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

1.

One lesser scaup female was collected alive in the Cataraqui marshes, Ontario in 1940, and found to have imbedded Pb shot in its body (Toner 1940).  The bird was in good health.

2.

Of 1690 lesser scaup that died of oil pollution in Minnesota in 1962, 9.1% of adults and 5.5% of yearlings had Pb shot pellets embedded in their bodies (Jessen 1969). Of 1687 lesser scaup, 1.6% of males and 1.8% of females had ingested Pb shot in the gastrointestinal tract.

3.

Four lesser scaup were collected from the prairie region of Canada in the 1960's, and their flight feathers were analyzed for various inorganic elements (Kelsall 1970).  Mean concentrations were of 0.15 μg/g dry weight As, 222 μg/g Ca, 10 μg/g Cu, 96 μg/g Fe, 47 μg/g K, 1.0 μg/g Li, 96 μg/g Mg, 2 μg/g Mn, 121 μg/g Na, 281 μg/g P, 501 μg/g Si, and 92 μg/g Zn.

4.

Six lesser scaup were collected from Iowa in 1970 (Johnson et al., 1971).  Mean concentrations of Hg were 0.25 μg/g wet weight in breast muscle, 1.3 μg/g in liver, and <0.01 μg/g in fat.

5.

In 1969, 4 adult and 18 immature lesser scaup were collected from the Canadian prairie region, and pooled tissue samples analyzed for Hg (Vermeer and Armstrong, 1972).  Concentration in breast muscle and liver was 0.15 and 0.42 μg/g wet weight, respectively in adults, and ranged from 0.18-0.23 and 0.43-0.62 μg/g in immatures, depending on collection location.  In 1970, breast muscle from an additional 7 adults and 7 immatures was collected, and the muscles were placed into 2 pools of 3-4 samples each.  Concentrations ranged from 0.11-0.19 μg/g in adults, and 0.16-0.20 μg/g in immatures.

6.

Of 96 lesser scaup found dead in Illinois in 1972, 75% had at least one Pb pellet in the gizzard, and 36% had more than ten pellets (Anderson 1973).  Mean Pb concentrations were 47 μg/g wet weight in liver, 62 μg/g in kidney, and 34 μg/g in wing bone of males, and 43 μg/g in liver, 77 μg/g in kidney, and 55 μg/g in wing bone of females.  In 6 scaups, Hg ranged from 0.05 to 0.09 μg/g in liver and 0.07 to 0.15 μg/g in kidney.

7.

Breast muscle tissue from lesser scaup collected from several states between 1970-1971 was analyzed for Hg (Baskett 1975).  Median concentration was 0.16 μg/g wet weight in 7 samples from Mobile County, Alabama, 0.20 μg/g in 9 samples from Baldwin County, Alabama, 0.18 μg/g in 16 samples from Port Lavaca, Texas, 0.29 μg/g in 12 samples from San Francisco Bay, California, 0.26 μg/g in 16 samples from Tule Lake and Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, California, 0.23 μg/g in 7 samples from Corolla, North Carolina, 0.13 μg/g in 8 samples from Pamlico Point, North Carolina, 0.24 μg/g in 16 samples from Woodworth, North Carolina, 0.27 μg/g in 8 samples from Marshall County, South Dakota, 0.17 μg/g in 6 samples from McPherson County, South Dakota, 0.15 μg/g in 8 samples from Itasca, Minnesota, and 0.13 μg/g in 2 samples from Brigham City, Utah

8.

Wing bones were collected from immature and adult lesser scaup from the Atlantic Flyway, Mississippi Flyway, the state of Minnesota, the Central Flyway, and the Pacific Flyway (Stendell et al., 1979).  Mean Pb concentrations in birds from the different regions were 2.8, 1.8, 2.6, 1.0, and 0.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in immatures, and 2.8, 1.8, 2.4, 1.3, and 5.7 μg/g in adults. 

9.

Seventeen individuals with ingested shot in their gizzard and 32 individuals without ingested shot were collected in Texas between 1981 and 1983 (Hall and Fisher, 1985).  Mean feather concentrations (μg/g dry weight) were 35.1 Pb, 55.9 As, 10.5 Sn, 7.1 Se, 1.9 Mn, 0.37 Cd, 1.1 Cr, 13.5 Cu, and 2.8 Ni in birds with ingested shot, and 21.5 Pb, 71.7 As, 12.2 Sn, 8.9 Se, 2.5 Mn, 0.58 Cd, 0.5 Cr, 11.2 Cu, and 3.5 Ni in birds without ingested shot.  Mean wing bone concentrations (μg/g wet weight) were 8.8 Pb, 17.0 As, 6.7 Sn, 4.9 Se, 9.8 Mn, 0.31 Cd, 1.1 Cr, 13.3 Cu, and 0.80 Ni in birds with ingested shot 5.8 Pb, 4.1 As, 5.0 Sn, 3.3 Se, 9.5 Mn, 0.25 Cd, 1.5 Cr, 2.6 Cu, and 0.9 Ni in birds without ingested shot.

10.

Nine of 19 female lesser scaup and 120 of 300 males collected from Iowa contained ingested or embedded shot pellets (Havera et al., 1992).  Mean Pb concentration in blood 0.20 μg/g wet weight in 98 live-trapped females and 0.23 μg/g in 319 live-trapped males.

11.

In 10 lesser scaup collected from sites around San Francisco Bay, California in 1986,  geometric mean liver concentrations ranged from 46.9-114 μg/g dry weight Cu, 3.95-6.39 μg/g Hg, 3.55-10.7 μg/g Se, and 153-157 μg/g Zn (Hothem et al., 1998).  Mean Cd ranged from 0.606-4.96 μg/g in kidney.

12.

14 lesser scaup carcasses were collected by the California Department of Fish and Game from 3 different sites on the California coast during 1986-1987 (Takekawa et al., 2002). Geometric means and ranges of trace elements (μg/g dry weight) in livers (Cd only) and kidneys were recorded and sorted by time of collection, age, and sex. Early winter, adult male (N=1) Cd 6.3, Cu 68.3, Hg 5.32, Se 11.0, Zn 166.0. Early winter, juvenile female (N=1) Cd 1.2, Cu 79.7, Hg 1.1, Se 3.5, Zn 105. Early winter, juvenile male (N=4) Cd 0.58 (0.29-0.93), Cu 97.28 (65.4-128), Hg 2.3 (1.4-3.6), Se 6.30 (2.8-12.2), Zn 149.04 (140-159). Late winter, adult male (N=6) Cd 7.08 (3.7-18), Cu 48.63 (37.1-105), Hg 5.6 (3.6-9.8), Se 11.13 (7.1-19), Zn 159.45 (148-183). Late winter, juvenile male (N=2) Cd 3.25 (2.4-4.4), Cu 63.17 (48.9-81.6), Hg 7.58 (5.79-9.92), Se 11.93 (8.9-16), Zn 148.36 (142-155).

13.

One lesser scaup was collected from British Columbia in 1990 (Kannan et al., 1998).  Concentrations in liver were 57 ng/g wet weight mono-butyltin, 20 ng/g di-butyltin, 2.4 ng/g tri-butyltin, and 79.4 ng/g total butyltins.

14.

Four of 32 lesser scaup salvaged at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana in 1993 had ingested Pb shot in the gizzard (Moore et al., 1998).

15.

In 41 individuals collected from several sites in Ohio, Indiana, and Michigan between 1991-1993, geometric means (μg/g dry weight) in liver ranged from 0.42-0.70 As, 0.42-0.61 Cr, 1750-3640 Fe, 14.7-18.1 Mn, 0.41-2.43 Hg, 2.39-3.36 Mo, 21.7-40.5 Se, and 0.08-0.68 Sr (Custer and Custer, 2000).

16.

In 16 individuals collected from Indiana Harbor Canal in 1994, geometric means (μg/g dry weight) in liver ranged from 2.0-3.9 B, 50-252 Cu, 1831-7757 Fe, 619-817 Mg, 14-16 Mn, 2.9-4.8 Mo, and 124-175 Zn ranging, depending on age and month of collection (Custer et al., 2000a).  In five reference scaup from a game farm, hepatic means were 2.2 B, 252 Cu, 4574 Fe, 718 Mg, 17 Mn, 4.1 Mo, and 179 Zn.

IV.

Petroleum

1.

In 17 individuals collected from Indiana Harbor Canal in 1994, geometric means (μg/g wet weight) in carcass ranged from 0.007-0.011 benzo(a)pyrene, 0.057-0.066 Cl-Naphthalene, 0.029-0.035 naphthalene, 0.006-0.014 phenanthrene, and 115-0.157 total PAHs, depending on age and month of collection (Custer et al., 2000a).  In carcasses of 5 reference lesser scaup from a game farm, means were 0.008 benzo(a)pyrene, 0.041 Cl-Naphthalene, 0.030 naphthalene, ND phenanthrene, and 0.079 total PAHs.  In Indian Harbor Canal and reference scaup, respectively, geometric means ranged from 0.070-0.128 and 0.037 n-Docosane, 0.031-0.056 and 0.010 n-Dodecane, 0.027-0.046 and 0.022 n-Dotriacontane, 0.014-0.027 and ND n-Eicosane, 0.139-0.239 and 0.042 n-Heneicosane, 0.057-0.090 and 0.084 n-Hentriacontane, 0.096-0.173 and 0.086 n-Heptacosane, 0.124-0.138 and 0.064 n-Heptadecane, 0.053-0.140 and 0.048 n-Hexacosane, 0.071-0.089 and 0.027 n-Hexadecane, 0.082-0.152 and 0.098 n-Nonacosane, 0.091-0.180 and 0.073 n-Octacosane, 0.103-0.213 and 0.066 n-Pentacosane, 0.165-0.352 and 0.138 n-Pentadecane, 0.061-0.149 and 0.056 n-Tetracosane, 0.263-0.322 and 0.048 n-Tetradecane, 0.019-0.038 and 0.012 n-Tetratriacontane, 0.038-0.083 and 0.033 n-Triacontane, 0.157-0.218 and 0.071 n-Tricosane, 0.044-0.121 and 0.016 n-Tridecane, 0.031-0.048 and 0.028 n-Tritriacontane, 0.026-0.083 and 0.014 n-Undecane, 0.042-0.138 and 0.006 Pristane, and 2.484-3.089 and 1.182 total aliphatic hydrocarbons.

V.

Other

1.

Six individuals collected from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site between 1974-1978 had a mean radiation absorbed dose of 0.0033 Gy (Halford 1982). 


Lesser Scaup Contaminant Response Data

I.

Organochlorine Contaminants

1.

Twenty-five individuals were collected in January and March 1994 from the Indiana Harbor Canal, and 10 reference scaup were obtained from a game farm  (Custer et al., 2000b).  Liver samples were analyzed for total PCBs, PCB TEQs, total TEQs, and PCDD/PCDF TEQs and assayed for activity of BROD, EROD, MROD, which are indicators of cytochrome P450 induction, and levels of GSH, TSH, PBSH, and TBA, which are indicators of oxidative stress.  Blood and spleen samples were assayed for half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV), a measure of chromosomal damage.  Geometric mean activities of BROD, EROD, and MROD were 11.8, 10.3, and 3.5 times higher in Indiana Harbor scaup collected in January than in reference scaup.  TBA was significantly lower in immature males collected in January than in reference samples. GSA was higher in March samples of adult males than reference samples. TBA was positively correlated with total PCBs, PCB TEQs, and total TEQs. TSH was negatively correlated with total PCBs and all three types of TEQs.  GSH was positively correlated with PCDD/PCDF TEQs.  PBSH was negatively correlated with total PCBs and all three types of TEQs.

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

 

No response data available.

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

1.

Lead poisoning was responsible for the death of 295 lesser scaup on Rice Lake, Illinois in 1972 (Anderson 1973). 

2.

Twenty-five individuals were collected in January and March 1994 from the Indiana Harbor Canal, and 10 reference scaup were obtained from a game farm (Custer et al., 2000b).  Liver samples were analyzed for B, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn and assayed for activity of BROD, EROD, MROD, which are indicators of cytochrome P450 induction, and levels of GSH, TSH, PBSH, and TBA, which are indicators of oxidative stress.  Blood and spleen samples were assayed for half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV), a measure of chromosomal damage.  Geometric mean activities of BROD, EROD, and MROD were 11.8, 10.3, and 3.5 times higher in Indiana Harbor scaup collected in January than in reference scaup. TBA was significantly lower in immature males collected in January than in reference samples. GSA was higher in March samples of adult males than reference samples. BROD activity was negatively correlated with Fe, Mo, Pb, and Zn. EROD activity was negatively correlated with Pb and Zn. MROD activity was positively correlated with Hg and negatively correlated with B, Fe, Pb, and Zn.  TBA was positively correlated with B, Fe, Mo, and Pb and negatively correlated with Hg and Mn.  TSH was positively correlated with Hg, Mg, and Mn and negatively correlated with B, Fe, and Mo.  GSH was negatively correlated with Cu.  PBSH was positively correlated with Mg and Mn and negatively correlated with B, Fe, Mo.

IV.

Petroleum

1.

Of 996 lesser scaup found dead on the Lower Detroit River between 1949-1955, 55.7% (555 birds) were oily (Hunt, 1961).  Of 56 birds in which cause of death was determined, 23.2% died due to oiling, 10.7% died due to a combination of oiling and starvation, and 5.3% died due to a combination of oiling and disease.  Mean percent body weight change over a 3-4 month period ranged from 87.5-97.0% (second weighing as a percent of first weighing) in 53 scaup that were oily when banded, and 95.4-97.5% in 860 unoiled scaup.

2.

A total of 1757 lesser scaup died due to oil pollution from a fuel oil spill in Minnesota in 1962 (Jessen et al., 1969).

3.

Lesser scaup were the majority of 32 waterfowl found dead in open oil-sludge waste disposal pits in Texas between 1977-1979 (Flickinger 1981). 

4.

Seven lesser scaup were recovered alive after being oiled in a fuel spill in British Columbia in 1990 (Harvey-Clark, 1991).  One scaup, which was moribund and subsequently euthanized, had a hematocrit of 35%, total blood solids of 2.9 g/dL, and a blood creatine kinase level of 4000 IU/L.  In the six other birds, hematocrit ranged from 41-55% before rehabilitation efforts, and from 40-48% prior to release back into the wild.  Total blood solids ranged from 5.0-5.4 prior to rehabilitation, and from 5.4-7.0 after rehabilitation.  Blood creatine kinase ranged from 720-3765 IU/L prior to rehabilitation, and from 125-1570 IU/L after rehabilitation.  Creatine kinase elevation is an indication of stress-induced muscle damage.

5.

Twenty-five individuals were collected in January and March 1994 from the Indiana Harbor Canal, and 10 reference scaup were obtained from a game farm. (Custer et al., 2000b).  Carcasses were analyzed for total PAHs and total aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs) and liver samples were assayed for activity of BROD, EROD, MROD, which are indicators of cytochrome P450 induction, and levels of GSH, TSH, PBSH, and TBA, which are indicators of oxidative stress.  Blood and spleen samples were assayed for half-peak coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV), a measure of chromosomal damage. Geometric mean activities of BROD, EROD, and MROD were 11.8, 10.3, and 3.5 times higher in Indiana Harbor scaup collected in January than in reference scaup.  TBA was significantly lower in immature males from January than reference samples.  GSA was higher in March samples of adult males than reference samples.  BROD, EROD, and MROD activities were positively correlated with total PAHs.  TSH was positively correlated with total AHs.  PBSH was positively correlated with total AHs.  Blood DNA CV was positively correlated with total PAHs.

References for Lesser Scaup

Anderson, W.L.  1973.  Lead poisoning in waterfowl at Rice Lake, Illinois.  J. Wildl. Manage. 39:264-270.

Austin, J.E., C.M. Custer, and A.D. Afton.  1998.  Lesser Scaup.  In A. Poole and F. Gill eds. The Birds of North America.  No. 338. 32 pp.

Baskett, T.S.  1975.  Mercury residues in breast muscle of wild ducks.  1970-71. Pestic. Monit. J. 9:67-78.

Custer, C.M. and T.W. Custer.  2000.  Organochlorine and trace element contamination in wintering and migrating diving ducks in the southern Great Lakes, USA, since the zebra mussel invasion.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 19:2821-2829.

Custer, T.W., C.M. Custer, R.K. Hines, and D.W. Sparks.  2000a.  Trace elements, organochlorines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, and furans in lesser scaup wintering on the Indiana Harbor Canal.  Environ. Pollut. 110:469-482. 

Custer, T.W., C.M. Custer, R.K. Hines, D.W. Sparks, M.J. Melancon, D.J. Hoffman, J.W. Bickham, and J.K. Wickliffe.  2000b.  Mixed-function oxygenases, oxidative stress, and chromosomal damage measured in lesser scaup wintering on the Indian Harbor Canal.  Arch. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 38:522-529.

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Dindal, D.L. and T.J. Peterle.  1968.  Wing and body tissue relationships of DDT and metabolite residues in mallard and lesser scaup ducks.  Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 3:37-48.

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