USGS



BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES

Greater Scaup Greater Scaup photo by J.A. Spendelow
(Photo by J.A. Spendelow)
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Biological Characteristics

Species Aythya marila is 41-51 cm in length. Males tend to have a greater mass, 1134 grams on average, than females, 907 grams on average (Palmer, 1976). Males have dark heads, necks, and rumps, a gray back, white flanks, and a blue bill. The head of the male has a greenish sheen in full sunlight. Females have brown bodies with a white oval patch behind the bill. When in flight, a white wing stripe is obvious, extending from the secondaries to the primaries (Bellrose, 1980).
Status in Estuaries This semi-colonial species prefers to nest on the ground on the edges of ponds and lakes in open or forested tundra, and on islands in large taiga lakes. A typical includes 7-10 dark olive buff eggs in depression supported by tall, dead marsh grass, within 50 feet of the water. Young are precocial (Ehrlich et al., 1988). In winter, most greater scaup forage in large flocks in open bays and estuaries on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The maximum age of a greater scaup recorded in nature is approximately 22 years.
Abundance and Range During the breeding season, the majority of North American greater scaup occur along ponds in the treeless coastal tundra of western Alaska. The Alaskan breeding population has been estimated at 550,000 (Bellrose, 1980). Bird counts indicate that during winter, approximately 330,000 greater scaup occur in bays and estuaries of the Atlantic coast, between Massachusetts and the Chesapeake Bay (Bellrose, 1980). Smaller winter populations are found north to Canada, south to the Gulf Coast, on the West Coast from Alaska to Baja, and on the Great Lakes (Bellrose, 1980).
Site Fidelity Uncertain for breeding grounds, but adults and young seem to have a strong homing ability (Bellrose 1980). Banding data indicates that most adults return to the general vicinity of their previous year’s wintering spot, if not the exact location.
Ease of Census Difficult in breeding season. Moderate in winter. In winter, huge flocks on open water, but confusion between greater scaup and lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) confounds censussing (Bellrose, 1980).
Feeding Habits Generalist. The greater scaup forages in 1 to 10 meters of water by diving for benthic organisms. In the winter, clams make up a large portion of the diet, especially in marine habitats. However, this species is opportunistic, and eats a wide variety of bivalves, gastropods, crustaceans, vascular plants, and algae. In freshwater habitats, plants often dominate the diet (Bellrose 1980).


Greater Scaup Contaminant Exposure Data

I.

Organochlorine Contaminants

1.

Dead or moribund greater scaup (GRSC) were collected from Scotland between 1971-1975 contained mean hepatic concentrations of 0.11 g/g wet weight DDE, 0.15 g/g dieldrin, and 1.7 g/g PCBs. (Bourne and Bogan 1976).

2.

GRSC collected from the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland, contained mean concentrations of 0.001 g/g wet weight DDE, and 0.01g/g PCBs in breast muscle (Koivusaari, 1976).  DDT was not detected.

3.

Eighteen GRSC were collected from several locations in New York State (Baker et al., 1976). Liver PCB concentrations ranged from ND-32.5 g/g wet weight. Muscle PCB concentrations ranged from ND-8.70 g/g. Brain PCB concentrations ranged from ND-12.5 g/g.

4.

GRSC were collected from Niagara County and Suffolk County, New York between 1977 and 1980 (Kim et al., 1984). Residues of organochlorines in subcutaneous fat ranged from ND-1.60 g/g wet weight DDE, from 2.10-15.0 g/g PCBs, and from ND-0.38 g/g mirex. Residues in breast muscle ranged from 0.01-0.14 g/g DDE, and from 0.11-2.20 g/g PCBs. Mirex was detected in one muscle sample, at 0.14 g/g. Residues in liver ranged from 0.01 -0.07 g/g DDE, and from 0.22-2.10 g/g PCBs. Mirex was detected in one liver, at 0.09 g/g. One brain contained DDE at 0.01 g/g. Residues of PCBs in the brain ranged from 0.02-1.90 g/g. Mirex was detected in one brain, at 0.04 g/g.

5.

GRSC were collected in the Lake Ijsselmeer-Lake Markermeer region of The Netherlands between 1979 and 1981 (De Kock and Bowmer, 1993). Mean liver PCB congener 138 was 0.20 g/g ash-free dry weight. Mean PCB congener 153 was 0.35 g/g. Mean PCB congener 180 was 0.17 g/g.

6.

GRSC were collected in Gdnsk Bay, Poland in 1980 and 1981 (Falandysz and Szefer, 1982). The concentration range for HCB in fat of males was 0.08 to 0.55 ng/g lipid weight, with a mean of 0.25 ng/g. In females, the range for HCB was 0.07 to 1.10 ng/g, with a mean of 0.23 ng/g. Residues of alpha-s.gif (59 bytes)-BHC were detected in females only, with a concentration range from ND to 0.03 ng/g, and a mean of 0.001 ng/g. In males, sigma.gif (58 bytes)-DDT ranged from 0.71 to 4.70 ng/g, with a mean of 2.20 ng/g. In females, sigma.gif (58 bytes)-DDT ranged from 0.63 to 4.00 ng/g, with a mean of 1.80 ng/g. In males, PCBs ranged from 2.50 to 28.0 ng/g, with a mean of 10.0 ng/g. In females, PCBs ranged from 1.60 to 33.0 ng/g, with a mean of 8.00 ng/g. Residues of alpha-s.gif (59 bytes)-BHC were ND in all samples.

7.

Three GRSC were collected from Mud Island in the Detroit River, Michigan in 1981 (Smith et al., 1985). The ducks were eviscerated, defeathered, and the head and feet were removed. Mean carcass HCB was 0.37 g/g. Mean DDE was 1.30 g/g. Mean DDD was 0.14 g/g. Mean total PCBs was 11.0 g/g wet weight. Mean trichlorobiphenyls was 0.51 g/g. Mean tetrachlorobiphenyls was 0.57 g/g. Mean pentachlorobiphenyls was 0.98 g/g. Mean hexachlorobiphenyls was 4.70 g/g. Mean heptachlorobiphenyls was 3.80 g/g. Mean octachlorobiphenyls was 0.81 g/g.

8.

Males were collected from 2 sites in San Francisco Bay: Alameda Flood Control Channel (AFCC) and a location in the center of the Bay (CSFB) in the winter of 1986-87 (Hothem et al., 1998). Geometric mean oxychlordane in carcasses from the AFCC and CSFB was 0.01 and 0.02 g/g wet weight, respectively. Residues of trans-nonachlor were not reported at AFCC, and had a geometric mean of 0.01 g/g at CSFB. Residues of o,p-DDT were not reported at AFCC, and had a geometric mean of 0.01 g/g at CSFB. Residues of HCB were not reported at AFCC, and had a geometric mean of 0.01 at CSFB. Dieldrin was ND at both sites.

9.

GRSC were collected from the Somass River, British Columbia, downstream from a pulp and paper mill in 1989 (Vermeer et al., 1993). Mean residues were reported graphically, so data in this synopsis are approximate. Mean liver TCDD was 0.003 ng/kg wet weight. Mean liver PnCDD was 0.010 ng/kg. Mean liver HxCDD was 0.012 ng/kg. Mean liver TCDF was 0.040 ng/kg.

10.

GRSC were collected from Connecticut waters of Long Island Sound between November 1992 and March 1993 (Barclay et al., 1995; Perkins and Barclay, 1997). In abdominal fat, mean PCB concentration was 7.05 g/g wet weight in November, 11.4 g/g in December, 11.6 g/g in January, 12.6 g/g in February, and 11.0 g/g March. In breast muscle, mean PCB concentration was < 1.00 g/g for all months. In abdominal fat, mean total DDT was 1.20 g/g in November, 1.72 g/g in December, 1.68 g/g in January, 2.03 g/g in February, and 1.25 g/g in March. In breast muscle, mean total DDT concentration was < 0.10 g/g in all months.

11.

GRSC were collected from the Detroit River and from Lake Erie between 1993 and 1994 (Mazak, 1995). Ducks were separated into the categories " macrophyte consumer" and " zebra mussel consumer" based on gut content analysis and stable isotope analysis of wing tissue and prey items. Mean liver pentachlorobenzene for Detroit River macrophyte consumers (DRMA) was 3.50 g/g lipid weight, for Detroit River mussel consumers (DRMU) was 4.90 g/g, and for Lake Erie mussel consumers (LEMU) was 3.60 g/g. Mean dieldrin for DRMA was 24.0 g/g, for DRMU was 34.0 g/g, and for LEMU was 322 g/g. Mean HCB for DRMA was 13.0 g/g, for DRMU was 36.0 g/g, and for LEMU was 30.0 g/g. Mean DDE for DRMA was 20.0 g/g, for DRMU was 314 g/g, and for LEMU was 437 g/g. Mean OCS for DRMA was 23.0 g/g, for DRMU was 892 g/g, and for LEMU was 329 g/g. Mean mirex for DRMA was 0.80 g/g, for DRMU was 12.0 g/g, and for LEMU was 7.30 g/g. Mean residues of total PCBs for DRMA was 185 g/g, for DRMU was 1462 g/g, and for LEMU was 4464 g/g. Mean residues of PCB congeners in DRMA ranged from 0.60 to 24.0 g/g. Mean residues of PCB congeners in DRMU ranged from 1.00-221 g/g. Mean residues of PCB congeners in LEMU ranged from 5.60-624 g/g.

12.

Males were collected from several sites on or near federally owned wildlife refuges in Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey in the winter of 1996-97 (Cohen, 1998). In abdominal fat, mean DDE ranged from 0.39 to 3.64 g/g lipid weight, depending on collection month and location. Mean PCB in fat ranged from 2.03 to 27.5 g/g. All other organochlorines were detected in fewer than 50% of the samples.

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

 

No direct exposure data available

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

1.

GRSC were collected from San Francisco Bay, California, and Bear River National Wildlife Refuge, Utah in the winter of 1970-71 (Baskett, 1992). Breast muscle Hg in birds from California ranged from 0.19 to 0.44 g/g wet weight in immatures and from 0.28 to 0.68 g/g in adults. Breast muscle Hg in 1 bird from Utah was 0.02 g/g.

2.

Four GRSC were collected from the British coast between 1971 and 1972 (Dale et al., 1973). Liver Hg residues were 9.1, 5.3, 1.9, and 9.9 g/g dry weight.

3.

GRSC were collected from several locations in New York State (Baker et al., 1976). Residues of Cd were detected at 2.00 g/g wet weight in the liver of one specimen, but were ND in all other samples. Residues of Pb were detected in the liver of one specimen at 10.0 g/g, and in the breast muscle of another specimen at 2.00 g/g, but were ND in all other samples. Residues of Hg were detected in one liver sample at 0.02 g/g. Residues of Hg were detected in 3 muscle samples at 0.02, 0.08, and 0.10 g/g.

4.

Mean Hg concentrations in breast muscle of GRSC collected from the Gulf of Bothnia, Finland were 0.006 g/g wet weight (Koivusaari, 1976).

5.

GRSC were collected from a polluted site (Iona Island sewage outlet) and a reference site (Roberts Bank) near Vancouver, British Columbia in March 1976 (Vermeer and Peakall, 1979). Mean liver Ag was 0.32 g/g wet weight at Iona Island and 0.04 g/g at Roberts Bank. Mean liver Cu was 17.2 g/g at Iona Island and 19.6 g/g at Roberts Bank. Mean liver Hg was 0.25 g/g at Iona Island and 0.26 g/g at Roberts Bank. Mean liver Pb was 1.33 g/g at Iona Island and 0.35 g/g at Roberts Bank. Mean liver Zn was 41.6 g/g at Iona Island and 40.2 g/g at Roberts Bank.

6.

GRSC were obtained from a variety of sources in the Chesapeake Bay area between 1976-77 and 1979-80 (Di Guilio and Scanlon, 1984). Metal concentrations in liver ranged from ranged from 0.10-3.16 g/g dry weight Cd, 0.50-6.60 g/g Pb, 42.0-176 g/g Zn, and 6.90-117 g/g Cu. Metal concentrations in kidney ranged from 0.82-15.5 g/g Cd, 0.60-52.1 g/g Pb, 5.20-21.5 g/g Zn, and 5.20-21.5 g/g Cu. Metal concentrations in ulnar bone ranged from ND-11.8 g/g Pb, and from 112-192 g/g Zn. One GRSC was had ingested Pb shot in its gizzard.

7.

One GRSC was collected from an unpolluted estuary in Georgia in November 1980 (Odom, 1980). Breast muscle and liver Hg were 0.49 and 0.62 mg/g wet weight respectively.

8.

One GRSC with ingested Pb shot in its gizzard was collected (Scanlon et al., 1980). Liver Pb was 1.5 g/g dry weight.

9.

GRSC were collected from Raritan Bay, New Jersey (Gochfeld and Burger, 1982; Burger et al., 1984). Concentrations of Hg and Pb were reported in a figure only, so the concentrations in this synopsis are approximate. Mean liver Hg was 0.40 g/g wet weight, mean Pb was 0.60 g/g, and mean Cd was 0.51 g/g.

10.

GRSC were collected from Raritan Bay, New Jersey in December 1980 and January 1981 (Burger and Gochfeld, 1985). Mean metal concentrations in liver were 0.95 g/g wet weight Cd, 0.58 g/g Cr, 48.1 g/g Cu, 0.49 g/g Pb, 0.74 g/g Hg, 4.30 g/g Mn, 1.20 g/g Ni, and 59.8 g/g Zn. Mean metal concentrations in salt gland were 0.58 g/g Cd, 2.00 g/g Co, 3.50 g/g Cr, 3.20 g/g Cu, 0.43 g/g Pb, 0.13 g/g Hg, 0.85 g/g Mn, 2.70 g/g Ni, and 26.4 g/g Zn.

11.

GRSC were collected from Raritan Bay, New Jersey in December 1980 and January 1981 (Gochfeld and Burger, 1987). Mean metal concentrations in livers of females were 1.09 g/g wet weight Cd, 1.09 g/g Co, 1.52 g/g Cr, 18.7 g/g Cu, 0.99 g/g Pb, 0.50 g/g Hg, 5.64 g/g Mn, 1.94 g/g Ni, and 60.5 g/g Zn. Mean metal concentrations in liver of males was 0.90 g/g Cd, 0.41 g/g Co, 1.54 g/g Cr, 57.9 g/g Cu, 0.34 g/g Pb, 0.82 g/g Hg, 3.86 g/g Mn, 0.90 g/g Ni, and 59.5 g/g Zn.

12.

GRSC were collected in Gdnsk Bay, Poland for soft-tissue and feather metals analysis between 1980 and 1984 (Szefer and Falandysz, 1987). In soft tissues, mean Fe ranged from 45.0 g/g wet weight in the brain of males to 420 g/g in the lung of females. Mean Fe in feathers was 1700 g/g in males and 900 g/g in females. Mean Zn in soft tissues ranged from 10.0 g/g in the skin of females to 34 g/g in the stomach of males. Mean Zn in feathers was 130 g/g in males and 120 g/g in females. Mean Mn in soft tissues ranged from 0.32 g/g in the skin of males to 3.50 in the liver of males. Mean Mn in feathers was 32.0 g/g in males and 18.0 g/g in females. Mean Cu in soft tissues ranged from 1.10 g/g in the skin of males to 17.0 in the liver of females. Mean Cu in feathers was 10.6 g/g in males and 7.90 g/g in females. Mean Pb in soft tissues ranged from 0.05 g/g in the brain of females to 0.95 in the eyeballs of males. Mean Pb in feathers was 4.40 g/g in males and 4.00 g/g in females. Mean Cd in soft tissues ranged from 0.03 g/g in breast muscle of both sexes to 1.29 g/g in kidney of males. Mean Cd in feathers was 0.30 g/g in males and 0.38 g/g in females. Mean Co was < 1.0 g/g in all tissues. Mean Ni was < 1.00 g/g in all soft tissues. Mean Ni in feathers was 2.90 g/g in males and 1.80 g/g in females.

13.

Eighteen GRSC were collected from San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982 (Ohlendorf et al., 1986). Liver Ag ranged from 0.39 to 3.1 g/g dry weight, with a mean of 1.10 g/g. Liver Cu ranged from 28.0 to 159 g/g, with a mean of 96.8 g/g. Liver Hg ranged from 2.30 to 20.0 g/g, with a mean of 10.6 g/g. Liver Pb ranged from 0.34 to 3.10 g/g, with a mean of 0.71 g/g. Liver Se ranged from 6.70 to 31.0 g/g, with a mean of 19.3 g/g. Liver Zn ranged from 100 to 200 g/g, with a mean of 151 g/g. Residues of Cr and Ni were detected in fewer than 50 % of the samples. The geometric mean of kidney Cd was 15.5 g/g.

14.

GRSC were collected in Gdnsk Bay, Poland for hard-tissue metals analysis in the winters of 1982-83 and 1983-84 (Szefer and Falandysz, 1986). Mean Fe ranged from 120 g/g dry weight in the wing bones of males to 510 g/g in the tracheal cartilage of males. Mean Zn ranged from 110 g/g in the skull of females to 260 g/g in the upper leg bones of females. Mean Mn ranged from 3.60 g/g in the wing bones of females to 10.9 g/g in the tracheal cartilage of males. Mean Cu ranged from 1.10 g/g in the wing bones of males to 5.60 g/g in the skull of males. Mean Pb ranged from 0.50 g/g in the wing bones of females to 19.9 g/g in the tracheal cartilage of females. Mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Ni, Cr, and Ag were < 1.00 g/g in all matrices.

15.

Male GRSC were collected from San Francisco Bay, California and/or nearby coastal sites in early and late portions of the winter of 1986-87 (Hothem et al., 1998). For early winter GRSC from the Bay, geometric mean liver residues of Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn were 101, 2.37, 20.7, and 158 g/g dry weight, respectively. Geometric mean kidney Cd was 2.55 g/g. For early winter GRSC from coastal sites, geometric mean liver residues of Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn were 88.6, 4.24, 7.01, and 171 g/g, respectively. Geometric mean kidney Cd was 4.01 g/g. For late winter GRSC from the Bay, geometric mean liver Cu at 2 collection locations was 104 and 65.8 g/g. Liver Hg at the 2 sites was 10.4 and 5.72 g/g. Liver Se at the 2 sites was 32.7 and 27.4 g/g. Liver Zn at the 2 sites was 174 and 162 g/g. Kidney Cd at the 2 sites was 13.4 and 33.9 g/g. No GRSC were collected from coastal sites in late winter.

16.

From 1986-1987, 16 greater scaup carcasses were collected by the California Department of Fish and Game from 3 different sites on the California coast (Takekawa et al., 2002). Geometric means and ranges of trace elements (μg/g dry weight) in livers (Cd only) and kidneys were recorded and sorted by time of collection, age, and sex. Early winter, adult male (N=2) Cd 9.83 (4.6-21), Cu 95.94 (94.5-97.4), Hg 3.43 (2.8-4.2), Se 13.42 (7.6-23.7), Zn 181.14 (170-193). Early winter, juvenile male (N=5) Cd 1.95 (0.8-3.9), Cu 95.15 (61.8-119), Hg 2.89 (1.8-5.18), Se 12.83 (5.8-22.3), Zn 156.89 (134-175). Late winter, adult female (N=2) Cd 11.65 (9.7-14), Cu 80.33 (71.7-90), Hg 9.55 (1.9-48), Se 16.61 (8.9-31), Zn 133.99 (133-135). Late winter, adult male (N=6) Cd 14.94 (6.6-32), Cu 108.29 (84.9-142), Hg 10.78 (8.14-19.5), Se 47.94 (34-140), Zn 169.99 (148-186). Late winter, juvenile female (N=1) Cd 2.5, Cu 99.6, Hg 4.4, Se 27.0, Zn 157.0.

17.

GRSC were collected from Long Island Sound, Connecticut in the winter of 1987-88 (Barclay and Zingo, 1993). Mean Pb was 0.81 and 1.38 g/g dry weight in liver and kidney, respectively. Mean Cr was 1.02 and 1.85 g/g in liver and kidney, respectively. Mean Ni was 15.4 and 31.4 g/g in liver and kidney, respectively. Mean Cd was 2.91 and 13.6 g/g in liver and kidney, respectively.

18.

GRSC were collected in the Lake Ijsselmeer-Lake Markermeer region of The Netherlands between 1987 and 1991 (De Kock and Bowmer, 1993). Mean liver Cd was 2.7 g/g ash-free dry weight.

19.

Adult male GRSC were collected from a polluted site and a reference site in the San Francisco Bay area in March, 1989 (Hoffman et al., 1998). At the reference site, liver Hg ranged from 5 to 66 g/g dry weight, with a geometric mean of 19 g/g. Residues of Se ranged from 7 to 23 g/g, with a geometric mean of 13 g/g. Residues of Cd ranged from 1 to 17 g/g, with a geometric mean of 3 g/g. At the polluted site, Hg ranged from 3 to 11 g/g dry weight, with a geometric mean of 6 g/g. Residues of Se ranged from 21 to 140 g/g, with a geometric mean of 67 g/g. Residues of Cd ranged from 1 to 7 g/g, with a geometric mean of 4 g/g.

20.

Adult GRSC were collected from Connecticut waters of Long Island Sound in the winter of 1992-93 (Barclay et al., 1995). Mean metal concentrations in livers of males were 2.78 g/g dry weight As, 6.01 g/g Cd, 1.68 g/g Cr, 73.1 g/g Cu, 1.75 g/g Pb, 2.18 g/g Hg, 1.34 g/g Ni, 15.5 g/g Se, and 180 g/g Zn. Mean metal concentrations in livers of females were 2.60 g/g As, 4.24 g/g Cd, 1.70 g/g Cr, 50.9 g/g Cu, 1.60 g/g Pb, 2.43 g/g Hg, 1.35 g/g Ni, 14.4 g/g Se, and 150 g/g Zn. Mean metal concentrations in kidneys of males were 2.34 g/g As, 22.3 g/g Cd, 2.63 g/g Cr, 20.0 g/g Cu, 2.71 g/g Pb, 1.49 g/g Hg, 3.94 g/g Ni, 18.6 g/g Se, and 143 g/g Zn. Mean metal concentrations in kidneys of females were 3.14 g/g As, 19.4 g/g Cd, 5.22 g/g Cr, 19.7 g/g Cu, 10.2 g/g Pb, 1.67 g/g Hg, 4.89 g/g Ni, 23.8 g/g Se, and 150 g/g Zn.

21.

Adult males were collected from several sites on or near federally owned wildlife refuges in Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey in the winter and winter of 1996-97 (Cohen et al., 2000). Depending on collection location and month, mean metal concentrations in liver ranged from 0.29-2.17 g/g dry weight As, 0.88-4.36 g/g Cd, 0.65-3.07 g/g Cr, 21.3-82.1 g/g Cu, 0.56-1.92 g/g Pb, 3.38-23.4 g/g Se, 57.9-167 g/g Zn, and 0.87-3.80 g/g Hg. Mean metal concentrations in kidney ranged from 4.23-31.8 g/g Cd, 0.62-2.66 g/g Cr, 7.12-25.14 g/g Cu, 0.62-2.16 g/g Pb, 5.63-21.7 g/g Se, 34.8-110 g/g Zn, and 0.32-2.83 g/g Hg.  Mean metal concentrations in breast muscle ranged from 1.68-3.03 g/g Cr, 30.6-37.8 g/g Cu, 2.67-13.8 g/g Se, 42.5-54.7 g/g Zn, and 0.25-0.97 g/g HgArsenic in kidney and muscle was detected at one location only (Branford, CT) at means of ND-0.87 and 0.42-0.46, respectively.  Lead was detected in muscle only at Oyster Bay, NY at a concentration of 0.33 g/g. Cadmium was not detected in muscle.

22.

In the 1996-7 hunting seasons, gizzards from lesser and greater scaup (data combined) were collected from 21 hunting areas across 6 states (Minn., Mich., La., Ia, Wis., and Ky., Anderson et al., 2000).  Of 579 total gizzzards, 25 (4.3%) contained ingested pellets (Minn. 5 (1.7%), Mich. 13 (9.1%), La. 5 (8.5%), others combined 2 (2.4%)).  Of these gizzards, 44% contained non-toxic (steel and bismuth-tin, tungsten-iron, tungsten-polymer, and tungsten-matrix and tin) pellets only, 48% contained toxic (Pb) pellets only, and 8% contained a combination of toxic and non-toxic pellets.  Shot-in pellets were found in 36 scaups, none were toxic.

IV.

Petroleum

 

No direct exposure data available

 

Greater Scaup Contaminant Response Data

I.

Organochlorine Contaminants

 

No response data available

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

 

No response data available

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

1.

Two dead and 4 dying GRSC collected from Lake Houghton, Michigan in April 1928 were found to have 40 to 80 Pb pellets in their gizzards (Van Tyne, 1929). The mass of Pb in the gizzards ranged from 3.5 g to 5 g. Living birds exhibited signs of Pb toxicosis, including recurring convulsions, excessive weakness, loss of balance, and flickering irises. Post-mortem examination showed signs of Pb poisoning, including wasting of the internal organs.

2.

Adult males collected from San Francisco Bay in March, 1989 were analyzed to determine the relationship between Hg, Se and Cd residues in liver and the activity of several hepatic enzymes associated with glutathione metabolism and antioxidant activity, and to determine differences in enzyme activities and body, liver and heart weights between a polluted site and a reference site (Hoffman et al., 1998). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) was inversely related to Hg concentration. The ratio of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to GSH increased significantly with increasing hepatic Hg concentration. Hepatic GSSG and glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-PDH) were significantly higher in GRSCs from the polluted site. The ratio of GSSG to GSH was significantly higher in GRSCs from the reference site.

IV.

Petroleum

1.

Approximately 71 GRSC died and another 210 required rehabilitation following oil exposure due to a small spill in the Firth of Forth, Scotland in February 1972 (Bourne, 1972).

2.

Oiled GRSC (N=220) were recovered after a 250-gallon spill of medium/heavy fuel oil at Firth of Forth, Scotland in February 1978 (Campbell et al., 1978). Of these birds, 130 died of oil toxicosis.

3.

Thirty-five GRSC were found dead from oil toxicosis on Virginia Beach, VA in 1985 (Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, unpubl.).

4.

GRSC oiled in a spill of diesel-Bunker C oil mixture in Vancouver, British Columbia in February 1990 were captured for rehabilitation (Harvey-Clark, 1991). Immediately after capture, blood creatine kinase (CK) ranged from 1035 to 2470 IU/L, and averaged 20 times higher than the normal range for captive mallards. Immediately after capture, blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels ranged from 50 to 90 IU/L, which was 2 to 3 times higher than the normal range for captive mallards. Nine days after capture, CK levels ranged from 125 to 1060 IU/L, which was within the normal range. Nine days after capture, ALT was within the normal range. The elevated levels of CK and ALT seen immediately after capture were associated with skeletal muscle damage due to capture techniques, exacerbated by oil-induced stress.

References for Greater Scaup

Anderson, W.L., S.P. Havera, and B.W. Zercher.  2000.  Ingestion of lead and nontoxic shotgun pellets by ducks in the Mississippi flyway.  J. Wildl. Manage. 64:848-857. 

Baker, F.D., C.F. Tumasonis, W.B. Stone, and B. Bush. 1976. Levels of PCB and trace metals in waterfowl in New York State. NY Fish and Game J. 23:82-91.

Barclay, J. S., and J.M. Zingo. 1993. Winter scaup populations in Connecticut coastal waters. CT Warbler 13:136-150.

Barclay, J.S., C.R. Perkins, M.E. Tomassone, and K.E. Eccleston. 1995. Declining populations of ducks as influenced by habitat quality in Long Island Sound. Final Report. Univ. of Conn. Dept. Nat. Res. Mgmt. and Engin., Storrs, CT, for Office of Long Island Sound Programs. Conn. Dep. Envir. Prot. Proj. # CWF226-R and CWF 324-R. Hartford, CT. 171pp.

Baskett, T.S. 1975. Mercury residues in breast muscle of wild ducks, 1970-71. Pestic. Monit. J. 9:67-78.

Bellrose, F.C. 1980. Ducks, geese, and swans of North America. Third ed. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA 540 pp.

Bourne, W.R.P. 1972. Ducks die in the Forth. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 3:53.

Bourne, W.R.P and J.A. Bogan.  1976.  Seabirds and pollution. Appendix: Estimations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine birds.  In R. Johnson ed., Marine Pollution.  Academic Press, New York, pp. 482-493.

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