USGS



BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES

Bald Eagle Bald Eagle photo by Jim Zingo
(Photo by Jim Zingo)
For more information about Bald Eagles,
click photo to go to the
Patuxent Bird ID InfoCenter


Patuxent Home

Biological Characteristics

Species

Haliaeetus leucocephalus is a large black eagle with a white head and tail, and a conspicuous yellow bill. Immature birds lack white plumage (Bull and Farrand, 1977). Females are significantly larger than males, and body size for both sexes, typically 76-81 cm in length, increases with latitude (McVey et al., 1993; Bull and Farrand, 1977). Males have an average mass of 4.1 kg and females 5.4 kg (Dunning, 1993).

Status in Estuaries

The bald eagle nests in tall trees located near coastal areas, lakes, and rivers. Bald eagles are monogamous and pair for life. Typical clutch size is 2-3 white eggs (Bull and Farrand, 1977). Young are altricial (Ehrlich et al., 1988). Bald eagles live 15 years on average and have been recorded in nature up to 21 years (Niles, 1995).

Abundance and Range

Bald eagles breed in the greatest numbers in Florida, Virginia, Maryland, Maine, Washington, and around the Great Lakes (Stalmaster, 1987). The bald eagle population in the lower 48 states has risen from <2000 pairs in 1982 to over 6000 pairs at present (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service).

Site Fidelity

The same nest may be used for several years in the absence of disturbance (McVey et al., 1993). Often, this species simply adds on to its old nest resulting in one documented case of a nest weighing approximately 2 tons. Territories have been found to be as small as 0.16 square km in Nova Scotia and as large as 12.69 square km in Alaska.

Ease of Census

Moderate

Feeding Habits

Bald eagles are carnivores that prey upon fish, mammals, smaller birds, and, when necessary, carrion. Prey is sometimes obtained by stealing from other birds. Specific preferences include salmon, herring, gizzard shad, suckers, catfish, trout, yellowperch, ducks, gulls, jackrabbits, and deer. Regionally specific prey items include turtles in the Chesapeake Bay and sea otter pups in Alaska (McVey et al., 1993).

Bald Eagle Contaminant Exposure Data

I.

Organochlorine Contamination

A.

Concentrations in Adults, Juveniles, and Nestlings

1.

Forty-five bald eagles were found sick or dead in 18 states and Canada from 1964-65 (Reichel et al., 1969a). DDE occurred at median concentrations in 1964 and 1965 of 8.90 and 7.80 g/g wet weight in carcass, 4.91 and 5.15 g/g in liver, and 1.37 and 1.00 g/g in brain. Median DDD values were 0.44 and 1.60 g/g in carcass, 0.54 and 0.60 g/g in liver, and 0.40 and 0.16 g/g in brain. Median concentrations of dieldrin were 0.33 and 0.65 g/g in carcass, 0.21 and 0.35 g/g in liver, and 0.08 and 0.10 in brain. Median concentrations of DDT, heptachlor epoxide, endrin, and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone were <0.5 g/g in all tissues analyzed.

2.

Two eagles near death were collected from Newton, Connecticut, and Belleview, Florida in 1967 and 1968, respectively (Reichel et al., 1969b). The adult eagle from Florida had DDE concentrations of 28.9 g/g wet weight in carcass, 73.8 g/g in liver, and 27.1 g/g brain. Other contaminants detected at elevated levels were DDD (5.9 g/g carcass, 10.2 g/g liver, 3.8 brain), dieldrin (6.5 g/g carcass, 15.7 g/g liver, 7.0 g/g brain), and DDD olefin (2.9 g/g carcass, 3.6 g/g liver, 2.8 g/g brain). Concentrations of DDT, heptachlor epoxide, endrin, and 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone were <1.0 g/g and o,p-DDT was not detected. The immature female from Connecticut had DDE concentrations of 263.0 g/g wet weight in carcass, 170.0 g/g in liver, and 88.6 g/g brain. Other contaminants detected at elevated concentrations were DDD (79.2 g/g carcass, 76.2 g/g liver, 14.4 brain), DDT (14.1 g/g carcass, 0.8 g/g liver, 20.3 brain), dieldrin (5.3 g/g carcass, 5.2 g/g liver, 2.3 g/g brain), DDD olefin (11.6 g/g carcass, 7.1 g/g liver, 2.7 g/g brain), and 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (3.5 g/g carcass, 2.6 g/g liver, ND in brain). Concentrations of o,p-DDT were <1.0 g/g and heptachlor epoxide and endrin were not detected.

3.

From 1966 through 1970, 108 bald eagles found either dead or moribund throughout the United States were analyzed for contaminants (Mulhern et al., 1970; Belisle et al, 1972). Median concentrations of DDE in the carcass were greatest in 1970 at 18 g/g wet weight and lowest in 1968 at 4.92 g/g. Concentrations of DDD in carcass were also greatest in 1970 at 1.5 g/g and lowest in 1968 at 0.85 g/g. DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone in carcass were <1 g/g for all years studied, excluding 1966 when levels reached 1.20 g/g for dichlorobenzophenone. DDE concentrations in brain were greatest in 1970 at 26 g/g wet weight and lowest in 1968 at 0.92 g/g. Concentrations of DDD in brain were also greatest in 1970 at 1.5 g/g. Concentrations of DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone in brain were all <1 g/g. The only exception was dieldrin, in 1970, found at a median concentration of 2.0 g/g. PCB in brain ranged from 0.20 g/g in 1966 to 46 g/g in 1970.

4.

During a 1967-1972 reproductive study in northwestern Ontario, a dead 5-6 week old eagle nestling was collected (Grier, 1974). DDT was detected only in the liver at a concentration of 0.05 g/g dry weight. All other organochlorine contaminants were detected in the brain, liver, and breast muscle. Contaminant levels, respectively, were: 5.30, 8.72 , and 1.59 g/g DDE; 0.20, 0.41, and 0.04 g/g DDD; 0.40, 0.45, and 0.09 g/g dieldrin; and 1.80, 5.97, and 1.14 g/g PCB.

5.

Bald eagle liver, carcass, and egg samples were collected during 1968-76 in Maryland and Virginia (Stafford et al., 1978). Kepone was detected in all six eagle livers from Virginia (0.2-16.0 g/g wet weight) and three of the carcasses (0.1-2.2 g/g). In Virginia, kepone was detected in seven of eight livers (0.13-130.0 g/g) and four of the carcasses (0.24-44.0 g/g). Three eggs collected from the Potomac River, Virginia, in 1976, contained a median (range) kepone concentration of 0.15 (0.14-0.19) g/g based on total egg volume.

6.

A bald eagle nestling collected between 1969 and 1972 from Lake Ontario contained geometric mean DDE and PCB concentrations, respectively, in the following matrices: brain, 5.32 and 1.82 g/g dry weight; liver, 8.72 and 5.97 g/g, and breast muscle, 1.59 and 1.12 (Gilbertson and Reynolds, 1974).

7.

In 1971 and 1972, 37 bald eagles were found dead throughout the United States (Cromartie et al., 1975). Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in carcass were 0.77-210.0 g/g DDE, 0.10-33.0 g/g DDD, 0.12-3.2 g/g DDT, 0.01- 33 g/g dieldrin, 0.06-5.5 g/g heptachlor epoxide, 0.06-1.3 g/g mirex, 0.18-1.4 g/g oxychlordane, 0.11-7.4 g/g cis-chlordane, 0.30 to 1200 g/g PCB, and <1 g/g cis-nonachlor, and HCB. Concentrations in brain were 0.07-89.0 g/g DDE, 0.05-9.9 g/g DDD, 0.05-0.034 g/g DDT, 0.05-7.8 g/g dieldrin, 0.05-1.7 g/g heptachlor epoxide, 0.05-1.7 g/g cis-chlordane, 0.10-190.0 g/g PCB, and <1 g/g mirex, oxychlordane, cis-nonachlor, and HCB.

8.

Contaminant concentrations were compared between the brain and the carcass (after removal of the skin, beak, feet, gastrointestinal tract, and liver) in 101 bald eagles collected from 1971-74 (location not specified in paper) (Barbehenn and Reichel, 1981). Mean concentrations for the brain (g/g wet weight) and the carcass (g/g lipid weight) were as follows: 0.44 and 74 DDD, 1.66 and 200 DDE, 0.22 and 24 mirex, 0.29 and 30 cis-nonachlor, 3.75 and 380 PCB, 0.15 and 15 toxaphene, 0.15 and 15 oxychlordane, 0.27 and 27 cis-chlordane, 0.23 and 20 heptachlor epoxide, 0.54 and 41 dieldrin, 0.40 and 25 DDT, and 0.15 and 8 HCB. It was determined that brain levels could be predicted from the carcass concentration and that the compounds varied by a factor of about 3 in the degree to which they accumulated in the brain

9.

From 1973 to 1974, 86 bald eagles found dead or moribund were collected throughout the United States (Prouty et al., 1977). DDE was highest in the carcass in 1973 at a median concentration of 12.0 g/g wet weight and in the brain in 1974 at a median concentration of 8.6 g/g. In 1973, TDE was detected at a median concentration of 1.4 g/g in the carcass and 1.0 g/g in the brain. Also in 1973, dieldrin was detected at 1.3 g/g in the brain. PCBs were highest in 1974 at a median concentration of 50 g/g in the carcass. Brain PCB concentrations reached a maximum in 1973 with a median level of 7.5 g/g.

10.

In 1975 a bald eagle was collected from South Dakota (Call et al., 1977). Concentrations of organochlorine contaminants were < 1 g/g wet weight in the liver. PCBs concentration in liver were 3.83 g/g.

11.

In 1975, an immature bald eagle was found dead in Illinois (Collier et al., 1976). DDE concentrations were highest in muscle at 3.04 g/g. Concentrations of other contaminants were highest in the liver at 3.01 g/g DDD, 2.30 g/g DDT, 3.12 g/g dieldrin and 74.1 g/g total PCBs.

12.

An immature bald eagle found in western Maryland with suspected Pb poisoning contained 0.5 g/g DDE and 0.53 g/g PCB in the carcass (Jacobson et al., 1977).

13.

Organochlorine concentrations were measured in blood of nesting bald eagles in southcentral Oregon (Frenzel, 1985). In nestlings, concentrations of DDE, DDD, and PCBs were <1 g/g. In adults and subadults, concentrations of DDE ranged from 0.08 to 1.4 g/g and 0.06 to 0.20 g/g, respectively, DDD and PCBs were <1 g/g, and cis-chlordane was not detected. Concentrations of trans-nonachlor were <1 g/g in for all groups. Blood samples were also collected from eagles wintering in Oregon. Mean concentrations of DDE and PCBs were <1 g/g.

14.

From 1975 to 1977, 168 bald eagles were collected from 29 states in the United States (Kaiser et al., 1980). DDE was detected at its greatest median concentration of 6.8 g/g wet weight in a carcass collected in 1976. Other organochlorine contaminants were detected in the brain and the carcass at median concentrations of <1 g/g. Median concentrations of PCBs were greatest in 1976 at 12.0 g/g in carcasses and 2.2 g/g brain.

15.

In 1977 and 1978, plasma samples were collected from adult and subadult bald eagles in Colorado and Missouri and (Henny et al., 1981). Concentrations of total DDT, dieldrin, and PCBs were <1 g/g.

16.

16. From 1978 to 1981, 239 bald eagles found dead or moribund were collected from 32 states in the United States (Reichel et al., 1984). DDE concentrations were highest in 1980 at a of 3.3 g/g wet weight in carcass and 1.3 g/g in brain. Concentrations of DDD, DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, endrin, toxaphene, HCB, and mirex were <1 g/g. PCB concentrations were highest in 1979 at 5.3 g/g in carcass and 1981 at 3.2 g/g in brain.

17.

Contaminant concentrations were measured in blood and tissues of bald eagles wintering in the Klamath basin, Oregon and California, between 1979 and 1982 (Frenzel and Anthony, 1989). Geometric mean concentrations in adults and subadults in blood were 0.042 and 0.030 g/g wet weight DDE, and 0.018 and 0.014 g/g PCB. DDE concentrations in the carcass, adults and subadults together, ranged from 0.19-9.0 g/g. DDD, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, cis-nonachlor, toxaphene, HCB, and mirex were detected in a portion of the carcasses, at concentrations 0.22 g/g. PCB was detected in 9 of 10 carcasses, at concentrations ranging from 0.3-10.0 g/g.

18.

In 1984-1986, organochlorines were measured in 8 bald eagles between 5 weeks and 6 months of age nesting in Lake Superior and inland Wisconsin (Kozie and Anderson, 1991). Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were 1.5-16.0 g/g wet weight in brain and 0.12-6.6 in breast muscle in Lake Superior, and <1 g/g in inland colonies. PCB concentrations ranged from 2.9-42.0 g/g in brain and 0.27-14.0 in breast muscle in Lake Superior and were <1 g/g in inland colonies. Concentrations of o,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, dieldrin, and endrin were <1 g/g at all locations.

19.

From 1979 to 1981 concentrations DDE and PCBs were <1 g/g wet weight in blood of bald eagles from Oregon, northern California, and Montana (Wiemeyer et al., 1989).

20.

Blood was collected from 15 nestlings, 4 subadults, and 3 adults nesting in the Columbia River estuary from 1984 to 1986 (Anthony et al., 1993). Mean DDE concentrations were lowest in the nestlings (0.05 g/g wet weight) and highest in the adults (2.13 g/g). Mean PCBs were also lowest in the nestlings (0.04 g/g) and highest in the adults (2.40 g/g).

21.

From 1985-1993, low concentrations of four organochlorines were found in the blood of 18 migrant adult and immature eagles in west-central Montana (Harmata and Restani, 1995). Maximum DDE, DDD, dieldrin, and hexachlorobenzene concentrations found in the eagles were: 0.087 g/g wet weight, 0.010 g/g, 0.007 g/g, and 0.001 g/g, respectively. There were no significant differences between sex or age classes.

22.

From 1987 to 1989, blood samples were taken from nestling bald eagles in Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Ontario, and Wisconsin (Bowerman et al., 1994a). Mean (range) DDE concentrations in the nestlings from the Great Lakes (N=42) and the interior (N=79) were, respectively: 61 (13-306) and 20 (2-193) mg/l. The mean concentrations of DDE were significantly higher in the nestlings from the Great Lakes. Total PCBs were also significantly higher in nestlings near the Great Lakes, 183 (33-520) g/l, compared to the interior, 24 (5-200) g/l.

23.

Blood plasma was collected from 309 nestling bald eagles from 10 sites in the Great Lakes between 1987 and 1992 (Bowerman et al., 2003). The geometric mean, range, and frequency of detectable concentrations of PCBs and DDE in plasma are presented in g/kg and %. Chippewa Nat. Forest (N=43) PCBs 7 (<10-67) 23%, DDE 3 (<5-29) 19%. Superior Nat. Forest (N=15) PCBs 5 (<10-18) 7%, DDE 3 (<5-8) 13%. Voyageurs Nat. Park (N=21) PCBs 47 (<10-1,615) 91%, DDE 20 (<5-206) 13%. Lower peninsula (N=49) PCBs 31 (<10-200) 96%, DDE 10 (<5-193) 86%. Eastern upper peninsula (N=16) PCBs 32 (<10-146) 94%, DDE 12 (<5-24) 94%. Western upper peninsula (N=48) PCBs 25 (<10-177) 88%, DDE 10 (<5-245) 79%. Lake Superior (N=45) PCBs 127 (12-640) 100%, DDE 25 (<5-306) 89%. Lake Michigan (N=25) PCBs 154 (14-628) 100%, DDE 35 (<5-235) 100%. Lake Huron (N=12) PCBs 105 (5-928) 100%, DDE 25 (<5-78) 92%. Lake Erie (N=35) PCBs 199 (81-1,325) 100%, DDE 22 (<5-429) 100%.

24.

From 1989-94, 75 bald eagles were found dead from 6 areas in British Columbia (Elliott et al., 1996b). Geometric mean contaminant concentrations in the liver for each site ranged from 0.429-3.36 g/g wet weight total PCBs, 0.42-4.93 g/g DDE, and 0.046-0.321 g/g trans-nonachlor. Individual concentrations ranged up to 15.2 g/g for PCBs and 26.8 g/g for DDE. Mean concentrations of oxychlordane, mirex, -HCH, dieldrin, and HCB were 0.052 g/g. PCB congeners analyzed in 19 livers included 77 (248-2300 pg/g), 126 (349-9960 pg/g), 169 (56-2640 pg/g), 118 (37-4539 ng/g), and 105 (3-1289 ng/g). TEQs ranged from 53-2740 pg/g. Also analyzed were TCDD (4-392 pg/g), 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD (9-1420 pg/g), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD (9-4360 pg/g), 2,3,7,8-TCDF (1-101 pg/g), and 2,3,4,7,8/1,3,4,8,9-PnCDF (trace-375 pg/g).

25.

Between 1989 and 1994, blood samples were collected from 89 bald eagle nestlings in 53 nesting territories in Wisconsin (15 nests within near Lake Superior and 38 inland nests) (Dykstra et al., 1998).  Blood samples collected from Lake Superior contained significantly greater concentrations of DDE (18.9 ng/g) and PCB (109.1 ng/g) than samples collected from interior nests (3.0 ng/g and 42.6 ng/g, respectively).  Contaminant concentrations showed no correlation with 5-year productivity rates in either region.

26.

Organochlorine contaminants were measured in blood collected between 1990 and 1996 from nestling bald eagles on Lake Erie (1990-1994, 1996; N=30), Lake Huron (1994; N=1), Lake Nipigon (1993; N=7), Lake Superior (1992, 1994; N=11), and Lake of the Woods (1992; N=2) (Donaldson et al., 1999).  Plasma concentrations of several contaminants did not differ between sites including DDE (means of lakes: 0.0471-0.1295 g/g wet weight) , DDT (0.0001-0.0056 g/g), and dieldrin (0.0031-0.0070 g/g).  Plasma collected from Lake Erie contained significantly greater concentrations of total PCBs (0.1295 g/g) than Lake Nipigon (0.0471 g/g), though concentrations of total chlordane (0.0082 g/g) and total mirex (0.0006 g/g) were significantly lower than those at Lake Superior (0.0200 g/g and 0.0012 g/g, respectively).  No significant temporal trends were observed.

27.

Between 1992 and 1995, 6 blood samples were drawn from bald eagle nestlings in Wisconsin (Dykstra et al., 2001). In addition, 2 blood samples were collected in 1987 from Michigan (Bowerman, 1991: M.S. Thesis, Northern Michigan University). Green Bay nestling blood plasma (N=8) had geometric mean DDE concentrations of 53 mg/kg wet weight and total PCB concentrations of 207 mg/kg. Bald eagle nestling blood plasma samples had the following concentrations of DDE: 111, 235, 361, 4, 46, 95, 29, 13, and 53 mg/kg.  Total PCB concentrations were: 229, 319, 901, 83, 121, 393, 150, 87, and 207 mg/kg.

28.

A 12-year old female bald eagle was found on Santa Catalina Island, California, with suspected DDE poisoning (Garcelon et al., 1997). Concentrations of DDE were 53.0 g/g wet weight in serum, 212.5 g/g in brain, 838.3 g/g in liver, and 317.5 g/g in skeletal muscle. DDD was detected in serum only at 0.14 g/g, and DDT was found in all four tissues at concentrations 0.11 g/g. Total PCB concentrations were 26.0 g/g in serum, 58.6 g/g in brain, 294.0 g/g in liver, and 3.9 g/g in skeletal muscle

29.

In 1993-1994, blood was collected from 51 bald eagle chicks from 8 colonies on the coast of British Columbia (Elliott and Norstrom, 1998). Individual PCDD and PCDF concentrations were determined at the following ranges (pg/g wet weight): 0-0.80 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 0.01-1.6 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD, ND-3.9 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 0.01-25 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, 0.06-31 OCDD, 0.02-7.7 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 0.01-0.41 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF, 0.01-0.55 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 0.04-0.61 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 0.01-0.38 OCDF. 2,3,7,8-TCDF was the dominant congener detected in sites closest to a pulp mill. Other organochlorines were determined at the following ranges (ng/g wet weight): 1.9-69.6 total PCBs, 0.6-86 DDE, 0.1-6.4 trans-nonachlor, ND-1.8 oxychlordane, ND-0.8 dieldrin, ND-1.4 mirex, and 0.1-2.2 HCB. Non-ortho PCB congeners analyzed (pg/g wet weight) were 37 (0.31-35.2), 81 (0.01-6.02), 77 (0.89-52.3), 126 (ND-212), 169 (0.05-8.97), and 189 (0.03-1.49).

30.

During the summers of 1993 or 1994, a dead bald eagle nestling was collected from Kiska Island, in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA (Anthony et al., 1999).  Concentration of DDE was 1.65 ppm dry weight, and concentration of PCBs was 1.05 ppm dry weight. 

31.

Blood was collected from 19 nestlings in 2 areas of Michigan in 1997 (Bowerman et al., 2002). Mean concentrations were recorded in g/kg wet weight. Interior breeding area: Total PCBs 105.43, DDE 36.43, Hg 244.39. Great Lakes breeding area: Total PCBs 108.83, DDE 27.58, Hg 160.83.

32.

Between 1993 and 1998, liver and kidneys were collected from 26 bald eagle carcasses (Stout et al., 2002). Concentrations are in mg/kg, dry weight and were detected in at least 50% of samples.

Liver HCB 88% detect, mean 0.025 g/g, range (<0.06-0.300), total PCBs 100%, 1.46, (0.02-52.0), Alpha-chlordane 54%, 0.014 (<0.06-0.240), Beta-BHC 73%, 0.024 (<0.06-0.420), cis-nonachlor 65%, 0.020 (<0.06-0.320), Dieldrin 54%, 0.017 (<0.06-0.130), Heptachlor epoxide 54%, 0.014 (<0.06-0.130), Mirex 62%, 0.022 (<0.06-0.560), Oxychlordane 92%, 0.046 (<0.06-0.410), DDD 85%, 0.035 (<0.06-0.560), DDE 100%, 0.63 (0.01-10.0), trans-nonachlor 92% 0.094 (<0.06-1.260)

Kidney - HCB 50% detect, mean 0.041 g/g, range (<0.06-0.105), total PCBs 100%, 4.83, (1.08-42.6), Alpha-chlordane 10%, NC, Beta-BHC 80%, 0.051 (<0.06-0.200), Cis-nonachlor 60%, 0.054 (<0.06-0.223), Dieldrin 40%, NC, Heptachlor epoxide 40%, NC, Mirex 40%, Oxychlordane 90%, 0.087 (<0.06-0.302), DDD 90%, 0.079 (<0.06-0.232), DDE 100%, 1.23 (0.24-8.09), trans-nonachlor 100%, 0.142 (0.040-0.851).

33.

In 2000, 8 eagles were found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (Kumar et al., 2002). Liver, muscle, fat, kidneys, and gall bladder were removed, analyzed and results recorded in wet weight. PCDD/DFs in livers were 23-4500 pg/g and blood plasma 2.3-49 pg/g. One eagle liver had 280,000 ng/g PCB.  Greatest DDE concentration was 17000 ng/g, and HCB 120 ng/g. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of total TEQs in tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs accounted for 17% of total TEQs.  Biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were 0.015-0.02% per day.

B.

Concentration in Eggs

1.

Addled bald eagle eggs collected from northwestern Ontario in 1967, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1976, 1977, 1980, and 1981 were analyzed to study the effects of the 1972 DDT ban (Grier, 1974, 1982). DDT declined from a high concentration of 2.62 g/g dry weight in 1968 (no data 1967) to levels <0.36 in subsequent years and was not detected in nearly half the eggs sampled after 1971. DDE values ranged from 44 to 125 g/g through 1972, peaking in 1971. From 1976 to 1981, DDE concentrations ranged from a low of 0.6 g/g in 1977 to a maximum of 59.8 in 1976, with no clear pattern throughout the years. Concentrations of DDD reached highs of 5.17 g/g in 1968, and 9.66 and 13.20 g/g in 1971. DDD concentrations in all subsequent years studied (no data 1967) ranged from 0.61 to 3.18 g/g. Dieldrin showed a general increase from 1967 to 1972, ranging from 1.21 to 8.21 g/g. In 1976 one egg had a dieldrin concentration of 12.40 g/g, with all other eggs from 1976, 1977, 1980, and 1981 from 1.31-5.42 g/g. PCBs were measured in study years between 1971 and 1981 only. Concentrations were highest in an egg collected in 1971 at 977 g/g; all others were between 47.5-218.2 g/g.

2.

In 1968, bald eagle eggs were collected from nests in Maine, Wisconsin, and Florida (Krantz et al., 1970). Concentrations of DDE were greatest in Maine, with a mean of 21.76 g/g wet weight, followed by Florida (10.72 g/g) and Wisconsin (4.76 g/g). DDD residue means were also greatest in Maine (0.82 g/g), with similar levels in Florida (0.57 g/g) and Wisconsin (0.32 g/g). DDT was detected in 5 of 6 eggs in Maine, at a mean of 0.56 g/g, 9 of 15 eggs in Wisconsin at levels <0.23 g/g and 4 of 6 eggs in Florida at levels <0.67 g/g. Dieldrin was detected in all eggs sampled with means of 1.41 g/g in Maine, 0.21 g/g in Florida, and 0.37 g/g in Wisconsin. Heptachlor epoxide, detected in all but one egg, had a mean of 0.02 g/g in all three states.

3.

Bald eagle liver, carcass, and egg samples were collected during 1968-76 in Maryland and Virginia (Stafford et al., 1978). Three eggs collected from the Potomac River, Virginia, in 1976, contained a median (range) kepone concentration of 0.15 (0.14-0.19) g/g (calculated as g/mol on the basis of total egg volume and converted to g/g assuming a specific gravity of 1.0).

4.

In 1969 and 1970, bald eagle eggs were collected from Alaska, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, and Florida (Wiemeyer et al., 1972). The mean DDE concentration in Kodiak, Alaska was 1.92 g/g and in Admiralty Island, Alaska was 2.91 g/g, and mean DDE concentrations were higher in Maine (14.95 g/g), Michigan (39.46 g/g), Minnesota (9.57 g/g), and Florida (18.37 g/g). DDD was detected at much lower concentrations at all locations, with the highest mean concentration of 1.81 g/g in Lee County, Florida. Concentrations of DDT and heptachlor epoxide were <1 g/g. The highest mean concentration of dieldrin was 1.11 g/g in Florida. Mean PCB concentrations ranged from a low of 1.1 g/g in Alaska to 27.7 g/g from a single egg collected from Michigan.

5.

From 1969 through 1979, eggs were collected from various breeding areas in 14 states and tested for the presence of several organochlorines (Wiemeyer et al., 1984).

DDE was detected in eggs from every breeding area with a low of <1.0 g/g wet weight in Alaska sites (1975) to a high of 42 g/g in Maine (1974). Other states with high concentrations were Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, New York, Delaware, and Maryland, which had all breeding areas with eggs measuring over 20 g/g.

DDD was detected in eggs from all states studied except Alaska. The greatest concentrations were detected in Delaware (1977-78) with values from 2.7-4.1 g/g and Ohio (1976), where concentrations were >2.0 g/g. Maryland (1977-78) and Virginia (1976-77, 1979) also had several breeding areas with concentrations >1.0 g/g.

DDT was detected sporadically among the samples. Moosehead Lake, Maine (1976) had a mean concentration of 1.2 g/g wet weight, and all other concentrations were <0.13 g/g.

Dieldrin was detected in eggs from breeding areas in all states but Oregon. States with concentration >1.0 g/g were Minnesota (up to 1.6 g/g wet weight), Wisconsin (2.4 g/g), Michigan (1.0 g/g), Ohio (1.8 and 1.6 g/g), Maine (1.2 g/g), Delaware (1.6 g/g), Maryland (2.6 g/g), and Virginia (2.8 g/g).

Heptachlor epoxide was detected in all states except Alaska, California, and Arizona. In all states, the majority of concentrations were <0.10 g/g wet weight. Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio, Maine, Maryland, and Virginia had high values ranging from 0.20 to 0.36 g/g.

Oxychlordane was generally found in concentrations 0.10 g/g wet weight. Exceptions included Virginia, which had means ranging from 0.17-0.30 g/g over three years, and Florida, Maryland, Maine and Delaware, which had means between 0.10 and 0.20 g/g. The highest concentration was detected in Wisconsin in 1978 at 0.56 g/g.

cis-Chlordane was detected in most of the eggs analyzed. The greatest concentrations were found in Maryland (up to 1.4 g/g) and Virginia (up to 3.6 g/g) in 1977. Ohio had the next highest concentrations of 0.59 and 0.51 g/g in 1976. All other concentrations were <0.32 g/g, with the majority <0.10 g/g.

trans-Nonachlor was detected in eggs from most breeding areas, with Maryland and Virginia again containing the highest concentrations (2.5 g/g in 1978 and 2.7 g/g in 1979, respectively). Eggs collected from Ohio and Wisconsin, both in 1976, also contained levels >1.0 g/g. Delaware contained a high value of 0.94 g/g (1977) and Florida reached a maximum of 0.72 g/g (1976). Eggs from all other states contained concentrations <0.43 g/g.

cis-Nonachlor was detected in eggs from most breeding areas. Maryland and Virginia eggs both had high values in 1977 of 0.74 and 1.5 g/g, respectively. Wisconsin had a single egg (from Wolf River in 1976) at a concentration of 0.98 g/g, with most other values <0.10. Values for all other states were <0.27 g/g, with the majority <0.10 g/g.

Toxaphene was most frequently found in eggs from Wisconsin (concentrations were detected up to 0.84 g/g). It was also detected in single eggs from Arizona, Minnesota, Michigan, New York, Louisiana, and several eggs from Maine.

Mirex was detected in approximately 50% of the eggs, but in only one egg from a western state. Levels were generally <0.10 g/g, though concentrations in Florida were detected up to 2.0 g/g.

PCBs were detected in eggs from every breeding area. Levels ranged from 0.20 g/g wet weight (Kittridge Ranch, Oregon, 1981) to 37 g/g (Hockamock Point, Maine, 1980). Maine contained the highest mean concentrations of 26 g/g in 1980 and 24 g/g for a single colony tested in 1984. Virginia had a mean of 23 g/g in 1982 and Remington Farms, Maryland contained PCB concentrations of 36 g/g in 1980.

Kepone was measured only in states from the Chesapeake Bay area. Holly Forks, Virginia had concentrations of 5.1 and 5.4 g/g wet weight in 1977, while all other eggs measured contained <0.33 g/g.

6.

Bald eagle eggs were collected from various locations in Canada (Gilbertson and Reynolds, 1974). The following geometric means, expressed as dry weights, were determined for DDE and PCB respectively for each region: Saskatchewan (N=9), 22.4 and 14.2; and Ontario (N=18), 164 and 140.

7.

Organochlorine contaminants were measured in unhatched bald eagle eggs collected between 1974-1980 (N=6) and 1989-1994 (N=6) from nests on Lake Erie and between 1993-1996 from nests on Lake of the Woods (N=7) (Donaldson et al., 1999).  Concentrations of DDE and PCBs were significantly greater at Lake Erie during 1974-1980 compared to the later collection.  Contaminant concentrations for all three groups, respectively, were 84, 26, and 3.27 g/g wet weight total PCBs, 24.5, 10.8, and 3.3 g/g DDE, 0.64, 0.16, and 0.04 g/g total chlordane, 1.28, 0.49, and 0.12 g/g dieldrin, and 0.31, 0.45, and 0.04 g/g total mirex. 

8.

From 1977 to 1985 eggs were collected from various locations throughout Arizona (Grubb et al., 1990). DDE was detected at a mean concentration of 3.3 g/g wet weight. DDD, dieldrin, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor and cis-nonachlor and toxaphene were detected at <1 g/g. PCBs were detected at a concentration of 1.1 g/g.

9.

From 1980 through 1984, eggs were collected from approximately 75 different breeding areas in 15 states (Wiemeyer et al., 1993). Data was combined with that of earlier studies and analyzed with regard to trends in time and trends between populations.

DDE was detected in eggs from every breeding area with concentrations ranging from <1.0 g/g wet weight at Salisbury Point, Alabama (1983) to 20.0 g/g at Photographers Nest, Oregon (1981). Other states with high concentrations were Maine, which had geometric means over 9.0 g/g in 1980 and 1982, New Jersey (1982), in which a single egg contained 13.0 g/g, and Delaware (1982), which had a concentration of 16.0 g/g at Bombay Hook. Means from other states ranged from 1.2 to 6.6 g/g.

DDD was detected in eggs from over 90% of breeding areas. The greatest concentrations were detected at Michigan Island, Wisconsin (1.3 g/g wet weight, 1980), Remington Farms, Maryland (1.1 g/g, 1980), Bull Bluff, Virginia (0.96 g/g, 1982) and New Jersey (0.87 g/g, 1982). Eggs from Ohio contained concentrations of 0.46 to 0.72 g/g in 1981 and 1983. An eggs from Maine reached a concentration of 0.52 in 1984. States with mean levels between 0.27 and 0.50 g/g were Oregon (1982), Delaware (1983), Maryland (1980-1984), Virginia (1981-1984), and Florida (1981).

Dieldrin was detected in eggs from over 90% of breeding areas. The greatest concentrations were detected at Keshena, Wisconsin (1.8 g/g wet weight, 1981), Remington Farms, Maryland (1.2 g/g, 1980), and Michigan Island, Wisconsin (1.0 g/g, 1980; 1.1 g/g, 1982). Concentrations in Ohio ranged from 0.37 to 0.83 g/g in 1981 and 1983. Other sites with concentrations over 0.50 g/g were Balsam and Stone Lakes and Ferryville, Wisconsin (0.73, 0.55, and 0.56 g/g, respectively), Cocktown Creek and Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (0.74 and 0.67 g/g), Bull Bluff, Virginia (0.61 g/g), and North Fort Myers, Florida (0.92 g/g).

Heptachlor epoxide was found in about 50% of breeding areas and reached concentrations of 0.37 g/g in North Fort Myer, Florida (1983) and 0.35 g/g in Flambeau River, Wisconsin (1982). Concentrations at all other sites were <0.24 g/g.

Oxychlordane was found in eggs from over 70% of the breeding areas. The vast majority of eggs with detectable oxychlordane (>90%) contained <0.21 g/g wet weight. North Fort Meyers, Florida contained the greatest concentration (0.51 g/g, 1983), followed by Barlett Island, Maine (0.37 g/g, 1982), Flambeau River, Wisconsin (0.36 g/g, 1982), and Michigan Island, Wisconsin (0.29 g/g, 1980).

cis-Chlordane was detected in over 70% of the breeding areas. The greatest concentrations were found in Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (0.86 g/g, 1982), Remington Farms, Maryland (0.79 g/g wet weight, 1980), Bull Bluff, Virginia (0.75 g/g, 1982), Cocktown Creek, Maryland and Keshena , Wisconsin (0.64 g/g, 1981), and North Fort Meyers, Florida (0.51 g/g, 1983). Concentrations at all other areas were <0.45 g/g.

trans-Nonachlor was detected in eggs from over 90% of the breeding areas. The greatest concentrations were found at Remington Farms, Maryland (1.7 g/g wet weight, 1980), North Fort Meyers, Florida (1.4 g/g, 1983), Cocktown Creek and Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland (1.2 g/g, 1981 and 82), and Michigan Island, Wisconsin (0.95 g/g, 1980).

cis-Nonachlor was detected in eggs from over 70% of the breeding areas. The greatest concentrations were found at Remington Farms, Maryland (0.43 g/g wet weight, 1980), North Fort Meyers, Florida (0.41 g/g, 1983), and Flambeau River, Wisconsin (0.39 g/g, 1982). Concentrations at all other areas were <0.20 g/g.

Mirex was detected in approximately 25% of eggs. The only with eggs containing detectable mirex were Ohio and Maine (<0.20 g/g wet weight), Maryland (<0.65 g/g), Virginia (<0.21 g/g) and Florida (0.04 and 0.59 g/g).

PCBs were detected in eggs from every breeding area. Levels ranged from 0.20 g/g wet weight (Kittridge Ranch, Oregon, 1981) to 37 g/g (Hockamock Point, Maine, 1980). Maine contained the highest mean concentrations with 26 g/g in 1980 and 24 g/g for a single colony tested in 1984. Virginia had a mean of 23 g/g in 1982. Remington Farms, Maryland contained PCB levels of 36 g/g in 1980.

10.

In 1980 and 1982, addled eggs were collected from Madeline and Michigan Islands, along the southwest shore of Lake Superior, Wisconsin (unpublished data from Wiemeyer in Kozie, 1991). DDE concentrations were 13 and 14 g/g, dieldrin was 1.0 and 1.1 g/g, and PCBs were 6.8 and 12 g/g.

11.

Eggs were collected from the upper Klamath Lake, the Outer Klamath Basin, and Cascade Lake located in southcentral Oregon (Frenzel, 1985). Concentrations of DDE in eggs from all locations ranged from 1.5-20.0 g/g wet weight. Concentrations of other organochlorines were <1 g/g. PCB concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 12 g/g.

12.

Concentrations of DDE in 4 unhatched eagle eggs collected in 1985 from the Chesapeake Bay area were of 2.4, 7.1, 8.5, and 9.0 g/g (unpublished data from Goodbred in Ohlendorf, 1988).

13.

Eggs were collected from the Columbia River estuary from 1985 to 1987 (Anthony et al., 1993). DDE was detected at a mean concentration of 9.7 g/g wet weight, DDD at 1.4 g/g and PCBs at 12.7 g/g. HCB and mirex concentrations were at 0.3 and 0.2 g/g, respectively. The mean concentration of TCDD in 5 eggs was 31.98 ng/kg.

14.

From 1986 to 1990, addled bald eagle eggs were collected in Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, Ontario, and Wisconsin (Bowerman et al., 1994a). Mean dieldrin concentrations were <1.1 mg/g wet weight in all areas. Mean (range) concentrations for Michigan Lower Peninsula (N=4), Michigan Upper Peninsula (N=9), interior Ohio (N=3), Lake Superior (N=3), Lake Erie (N=7), Lake Michigan (N=2), and Lake Huron (N=3) were, respectively: 2.2 (1.0-5.7) mg/g DDE and 6.2 (1.9-14) mg/g total PCBs; 1.7 (0.5-16) mg/g DDE and 5.0 (1.8-29) mg/g total PCBs; 1.8 (1.3-3.1) mg/g DDE and 9.0 (5.7-20) mg/g total PCBs; 3.2 (1.5-9.5) mg/g DDE and 8.5 (3.4-14) mg/g total PCBs; 2.8 (1.9-10) mg/g DDE and 20 (8.6-44) mg/g total PCBs; 17 (10-30) mg/g DDE and 38 (27-55) mg/g total PCBs; and 16 (8.5-41) mg/g DDE and 73 (50-110) mg/g total PCBs.

15.

From 1986 to 1991, unhatched and broken eggs were collected from Arizona, northern California, and Santa Catalina Island (Jenkins et al., 1994). DDE concentrations were measured on the following unhatched eggs (in mg/g wet weight): 

In Arizona: 2.3 from Cedar Basin in 1988, 8.9 from Chino in 1986, 8.0 from McDowell in 1988, 7.7 from Cliff in 1989, 3.4 from Horseshoe in 1989, 5.3 from Alamo in 1989, and 4.7 (est.) from Horse Mesa in 1986. 

On Santa Catalina Island: 25 (est.) from Twin Rocks in 1987, 67 (est.) from Seal Rocks in 1988, and 44 (est.) from Pinnacle Rock in 1991. 

In northern California: 2.5 from Dusty in 1986, 2.5 from Dusty in 1988, 4.7 from South Shore in 1985, 4.1 from North Shore in 1986, 1.3 from Pit 3 in 1990, 0.50 from Pit 6 in 1989, 8 from OBrien in 1986, 9.5 (mean; N=2) from Packers Bay in 1984, 1.3 from Packers Bay in 1991, 10 from Hirz Bay in 1984, 5.6 from Lake Pillsbury in 1984, 2.5 from Mountain Meadows West in 1986, 8.5 from Cool Springs in 1986, 22 from Rocky Point in 1986, and 2.6 from Mud Creek Rim in 1984. 

The following broken or crushed eggs had DDE concentrations (in mg/g lipid): 210 from Twin Rocks, Santa Catalina Island, in 1989, 1,100 from Seal Rocks, Santa Catalina Island, in 1990, 120 from South Shore, Northern California, in 1983, and 150 from North Shore, Northern California, in 1984.

16.

Between 1986 and 1996, 15 addled bald eagle eggs were collected from Michigan and Wisconsin (Dykstra et al., 2001). Green Bay bald eagle eggs (N=9) had higher geometric mean concentrations of DDE and total PCBs (8.3 and 31.3 mg/g wet weight, respectively) than did inland Wisconsin eggs (N=20) (1.09 and 2.4 mg/g, respectively).

17.

Eggs collected from the South Shore Nesting Territory located in northcentral California contained DDE concentrations ranging from 4.2 to 8.4 g/g wet weight (Jenkins, 1995).

18.

From 1990-92, 32 bald eagle eggs were collected from the south coast of British Columbia, including locations near bleached-kraft pulp mills, the highly industrialized Fraser River estuary, and reference sites on the Pacific coast of Canada (Elliot et al., 1996c). Geometric mean contaminant concentrations for eight sites ranged from 1.91-5.08 g/g wet weight total PCBs, 2.17-5.14 g/g DDE, and 0.142-0.32 g/g trans-nonachlor. Mean concentrations of cis-nonachlor, oxychlordane, mirex, photomirex, -HCH, dieldrin, DDT, and HCB were 0.061 g/g. PCB congeners analyzed from ten sites included non-ortho-substituted 37 (5-52 pg/g), 81 (24-107 pg/g), 77 (248-2300 pg/g), 126 (349-9960 pg/g), 169 (56-2640 pg/g), and 189 (1-97 pg/g). Also analyzed were TCDD (2-110 pg/g), 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD (5-211 pg/g), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD (3-374 pg/g), 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD (ND-15 pg/g), 2,3,7,8-TCDF (5-168 pg/g), and 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF (ND-50 pg/g). Mean TEQs were 210 pg/g, about twofold greater than the lowest-observed-effect level. Pulp mill sites in the Strait of Georgia had significantly higher TCDD concentrations than the reference area in Johnstone Strait, and a significantly different PCB congener pattern than sites in the Johnstone Strait and the lower Fraser Valley.

19.

Contaminants were measured in eggs of bald eagles exhibiting low nest success between 1993-1997 on the Delaware Bay in New Jersey (Clark et al., 1998).  One egg was collected for each year of reproductive failure (1993, 1994, 1995, 1997) at Raccoon Creek and one egg was collected from Stow Creek following reproductive failure in 1997.  Concentrations of DDE were elevated at both Raccoon Creek (12-18 g/g fresh weight) and Stow Creek (6.3 g/g).  DDD concentrations ranged from 2.1-2.8 g/g at Raccoon Creek and 0.62 g/g at Stow Creek, and DDT was < 0.03 g/g in all samples.  Total PCB concentrations were 24-54 g/g at Raccoon Creek and 20 g/g at Stow Creek.  TCDD-EQs ranged from ND-809 pg/g at Raccoon Lake and 331 pg/g at Stow Creek, of which PCB 126 and combined non-ortho substituted PCBs accounted for 52-60% and 72-77%, respectively.  Concentrations of PCB congeners at both sites ranged from  ND-2.1 g/g 77, ND-0.76 ng/g 81, ND-4.3 ng/g 126, ND-0.86 ng/g 169, ND-1000 ng/g 105, ND-70 ng/g 114, ND-2300 ng/g 118, ND-600 ng/g 123, ND-500 ng/g 156, ND-230 ng/g 157, ND-190 ng/g 167 and ND-46 ng/g 189.

20.

During the summers of 1993 and 1994, unhatched bald eagle eggs (N=25) were collected from Adak, Tanga, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Anthony et al., 1999). The following contaminants were detected in most eggs(most values estimated from graph): PCB-1260 (geometric means ranged from 0.70 2.15 ug/g wet weight), p,p-DDE (0.55 2.55 ug/g), -BHC (0.02 0.09 ug/g), HCB (0.02 0.252 ug/g), oxychlordane (0.02 - 0.08 ug/g), trans-nonachlor (0.10 0.27 ug/g), dieldrin (0.01 0.135 ug/g), and mirex (0.021 0.047 ug/g);.  Heptachlor epoxide (LOD 0.03 ug/g) and p,p-DDT (concentration not given) were detected in some eggs.  PCB-1242,-1248, and 1254, toxaphene, α-BHC and δ-BHC, α-chlordane and δ-chlordane, endrin, o,p-DDT, o,p-DDE, o,p-DDD, and p,p-DDD were detected in <3 eggs (concentrations not given).  Geometric means of PCB-1260 for Adak, Kiska, Amchitka, and Tanga Islands, respectively were 2.1, 2.0, 1.7, and 0.70 g/g wet weight, with concentrations reaching 9.9 g/g on Adak Island.  Eggs from Kiska Island contained significantly higher mean concentrations of p,p-DDE (approx. 2.50 g/g), mirex (<0.05 g/g), oxychlordane (<0.10 g/g), and trans-nonachlor (<0.30 g/g) than eggs from the other 3 islands.

21

Addled bald eagle eggs were collected from five of the Great Lakes from 1986 to 1995 (Weseloh et al., 2002). Contaminant levels in eggs are presented in mg/g wet weight for means and SD: Erie (N=10) DDE 3.602.37, dieldrin 0.440.15, Total PCBs 29.0213.58. Superior (N=1) DDE 9.54, dieldrin 0.51, Total PCBs 12.91. Michigan (N=7) DDE 11.668.79, dieldrin 0.690.64, Total PCBs 31.4013.19. Huron (N=4) DDE 7.623.03, dieldrin 0.340.19, Total PCBs 42.3222.08.

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

1.

Cholinesterase activity was measured in the blood collected from 15 migrating bald eagles between 1985 and 1993 in west-central Montana (Harmata and Restani, 1995). Mean cholinesterase activity in the plasma collected from the eagles was 69132 moles/min/L, acetylcholinesterase was 17115 moles/min/L, and butyrylcholinesterase was 52028 moles/min/L. No significant differences were found between adult and immature or female and male cholinesterase activity in plasma.

2.

In 1990, six bald eagles in good body condition were found in British Columbia, Canada, in agricultural areas adjacent to a golf course in Richmond or on farmlands in Ladner (Elliott et al., 1996a). Crop content analysis in two of these birds revealed 200 g/g carbofuran in one eagle and no detectable pesticides in the other.

3.

In December 1992, three bald eagles were found dead in a field in north-central Kansas where furadan had been illegally used to poison coyotes (Allen et al., 1996). The crop from a mature female eagle included 196 g of freshly ingested meat from sheep containing 1.1 g/g carbofuran. Crops from two immatures, one male and one female, contained 166 g meat containing 5.4 g/g carbofuran and 70 g of meat containing 4.8 g/g carbofuran.

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

A.

Concentrations in Adults and Nestlings

1.

Mercury concentrations in the carcass of bald eagles collected from 13 states throughout the United States were higher in 1970 (2.5 g/g wet weight) than 1969 (1.5 g/g) (Belisle et al., 1972). .

2.

In 1975, an immature female bald eagle was found near Lake Sangchris, Illinois (Collier et al., 1976). Hepatic metal concentrations were 0.21 g/g total Hg, 1.05 g/g Pb, and 2.80 g/g Cu.

3.

Lead poisoning was suspected in an immature bald eagle found intoxicated in western Maryland (Jacobson et al., 1977). A total of 75 Pb shot were found in the gizzard. Concentrations of Pb in the liver and kidney were 22.9 and 11.3 g/g, respectively.

4.

From 1975 to 1977, 168 eagle carcasses were collected from 29 states throughout the United States (Kaiser et al., 1980). Nine of the birds collected contained elevated concentrations of Pb in the liver, ranging from 22.9 to 38.1 g/g.

5.

The mean Pb concentration in the liver of six eagles collected from southern and central Idaho between 1977 and 1984 was 25.70 g/g wet weight (Craig et al., 1990).

6.

From 1979-1981, blood samples were collected from eagles in Oregon, northern California, Montana, and Washington (Wiemeyer et al., 1989). The geometric mean Pb concentration was highest in wintering birds from Oregon and northern California at 0.129 g/g wet weight. Mercury in the blood ranged from 0.23 g/g in resident birds from Washington State to 3.0 g/g in subadults from Oregon

7.

Lead and Hg concentrations in the blood of nestlings, subadults, and adults were measured in the Columbia River estuary from 1984-1986 (Anthony et al., 1993). Mean Pb levels were lowest in the subadults (0.17 g/g wet weight) and highest in the adults (0.43 g/g). Mean Hg levels increased with age with the lowest levels in the nestling (0.47 g/g) and the highest in adults (3.07 g/g).

8.

Two immature and six nestling eagles were collected from 1984-1986 from colonies in Lake Superior and inland locations (Kozie and Anderson, 1991). Mercury concentrations were greatest in eagles from the Lake Superior colonies, reaching a maximum of 4.4 g/g wet weight in the kidney.

9.

Contaminant concentrations were measured in blood and tissues of bald eagles wintering in the Klamath basin, Oregon and California, between 1979 and 1982 (Frenzel and Anthony, 1989). Geometric mean concentrations in adults and subadults in blood were 2.29 and 2.17 g/g wet weight Hg, and 0.04 and 0.13 g/g Pb. In the liver, Pb was detected in 9 of 10 adults and subadults (0.32-27.0 g/g) and Hg was detected in 7 of 10 livers (0.76-8.0 g/g).

10.

From 1979 to 1983 bald eagles were collected from southcentral Oregon during the breeding and winter seasons (Frenzel, 1985). Mercury, Pb, and Cd concentrations in the blood of nestlings were measured during the breeding season. The geometric mean concentration for Hg was 0.220 g/g wet weight. Lead concentrations ranged from ND-0.22 g/g and Cd from ND-0.11 g/g. Mercury in blood collected from adults ranged from 1.10-4.8 g/g and in subadults from 2.80-3.20 g/g. Lead was only detected in one adult female at a concentration of 0.25 g/g and Cd was detected in just two adults at 0.10 and 0.11 g/g. Mercury in the blood of wintering eagles occurred at a geometric mean concentration of 2.285 g/g in adults and 2.166 g/g in subadults, and Pb at 0.038 g/g in adults and 0.129 g/g in subadults.

11.

In 1981 and 1983, two bald eagles were found dying at Lac Qui Parle Wildlife Refuge in Minnesota (Bengtson, 1984). The eagle found in 1981 had a Pb concentration in the blood of 2.4 g/g. The eagle found in 1983 contained 1.36 g/g in the blood and 12.46 g/g in the liver.

12.

Feathers were collected from eagles nesting in over 100 breeding areas in the Great Lakes between 1985 and 1989 (Bowerman et al., 1994b). In adult feathers, Hg levels ranged from 19 to 21 g/g and Se from 1.6 to 1.9 g/g. In nestling feathers, Hg had a mean concentration of 9.0 g/g and Se had a mean of 1.9 g/g.

13.

Thirty-seven blood samples were collected from eagles in west-central Montana between 1985 and 1993 (Harmata and Restani, 1995).  Mean (maximum) Pb, Hg, and Se concentrations were, respectively: 0.32 (1.10) g/g wet weight, 0.54 (1.70) g/g, and 0.55 (2.80) g/g.  Mean Pb concentrations declined over the study period from 0.53 g/g in 1987 to 0.35 g/g in 1992.

14.

From 1987-1993, Hg concentrations were determined in liver, blood, and feathers from carcasses and nests of bald eagles from Florida (Wood et al., 1996). From carcass specimens, mean (range) Hg concentrations in the liver were 3.21 (0.63-12.20) g/g in adults, 2.58 (0.35-5.42) g/g in subadults, and 0.42 (0.14-1.01) g/g in nestlings. Also from carcasses, mean Hg concentrations in feathers and blood were determined for mixed age groups at 7.40 (2.38-13.70) g/g and 0.63 (0.07-1.35) g/g, respectively. Mercury values were determined in samples drawn from nests in both nestlings [0.17 (0.02-0.61) g/g in blood and 4.05 (0.76-14.30) g/g in contour feathers] and adults [11.51 (2.01-34.70) g/g in contour feathers, and 9.09 (0.10-34.70) g/g in all feathers combined]. Mercury concentrations in nestlings and adults from the same nest were correlated.

15.

From 1989 through 1990, 65 bald eagle carcasses were collected throughout British Columbia (Elliott et al., 1992). Nine of the 65 showed signs of Pb poisoning. Mean Pb concentrations were 34 g/g dry weight in the kidneys and 7.3 g/g in the bone. For 15 of the 65 which exhibited Pb concentrations at subclinical levels, mean Pb concentrations (only from detectable results) were 2.8 g/g in the kidney and 1.9 g/g in the bone.

16.

Between 1990 and 1996, golden and bald eagles found dead were collected from Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, Canada (Wayland et al., 1999).  No significant differences were found for Pb concentrations between golden and bald eagles, therefore data were combined.  In liver (N=199), Pb concentrations ranged from ND-243 g/g dry weight.  Background exposure to Pb (<6 g/g) was indicated in 100 of the livers, and elevated concentrations were found in 19 livers, 14 of which were consistent with Pb poisoning.  Concentrations of Pb in kidney (N=109) ranged from ND-109 g/g, with 90 kidneys containing <6 g/g. In bone (N=49), Pb values ranged from ND-18 g/g, with 31 samples containing <9 g/g.  Hepatic and renal concentrations of lead were highly correlated.

17.

Between 1990 and 1996, 96 bald eagles found dead were collected from Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, Canada (Wayland and Bollinger 1999). Lead concentrations in 14% of the bald eagles were above background concentrations.  One immature and 1 adult/subadult had elevated Pb concentrations (> 6 g/g in liver, 8 g/g in kidney), and 1 immature and 10 adult/subadult had toxic Pb concentrations (> 20 g/g in liver or kidney).  Bald eagles with elevated Pb concentrations occurred more frequently in areas of high waterfowl hunting intensity (> 1,000 hunter days per year).

18.

Between 1992 and 1995, 105 bald eagles were captured at Galloway Bay, Canada (Miller et al., 2001a). Blood Pb concentrations in the eagles were: 0.010 mg/ml wet weight in one male older than 4.5 years, 0.015 mg/ml in one female older than 4.5 years, median (range) of 0.013 (0.005-0.580) mg/ml in 24 males between 1.5 and 3.5 years old, 0.015 (0.005-0.125) in 15 females between 1.5 and 3.5 years old, 0.028 (0.005-0.585) mg/ml in 40 males younger than 1 year, and 0.020 (0.005-0.310) mg/ml in 21 females younger than 1 year. There were no differences between age classes or gender.  Elevated Pb exposure was significantly greater in eagles captured in November.  There was no correlation between blood Pb levels and the presence of ingested shotshell pellets found using fluoroscopy.

In 1995, 6 nestlings from Besnard Lake (reference area) had a median Pb concentration of <0.01 mg/ml, which was significantly less than that from the 0.5-year-old eagles (0.025 mg/ml) from Galloway Bay.

19.

Between 1993 and 1998, livers and kidneys were collected from 26 bald eagle carcasses (Stout et al., 2002). Concentrations are in mg/kg, dry weight and were detected in at least 50% of samples.

Liver As 54% detect, mean 0.48 mg/g, range (<0.06-1.81), Cd 100%, 2.43 (0.45-7.15), Cr 50%, 0.73 (<0.61-18.7), Cu 100%, 25.6 (11.2-395), Fe 100%, 2,180 (714-9,120), Hg 100%, 7.10 (1.70-17.5), Mg 100%, 540 (304-806), Mn 100%, 9.94 (6.04-16.5), Mo 100%, 1.97 (0.90-4.42), Se 100%, 10.2 (3.25-33.8), Sr 58%, 0.22 (<0.25-1.18), V 19% NC, Zn 100%, 127 (52.1-503).

Kidney As 62% detect, mean 0.53 mg/g, range (<0.06-1.96), Cd 100%, 13.7 (1.43-104), Cr 54%, 0.93 (<0.61-58.9), Cu 100%, 15.8 (8.76-68.0), Fe 100%, 888 (408-1,770), Hg 100%, 14.6 (3.91-68.4), Mg 100%, 598 (423-851), Mn 100%, 5.57 (2.86-9.85), Mo 100%, 1.87 (0.92-3.86), Se 100%, 13.1 (5.19-32.5), Sr 100%, 0.55 (0.10-2.41), V 50% 0.48 (<0.61-3.52), Zn 100%, 96.4 (52.3-278).

20.

During annual migration (1994-95), 66 bald eagles were trapped at Galloway Bay (Saskatchewan, Canada) (Miller et al., 2001b). Blood Pb concentrations ranged from <0.05mg/ml 0.585 mg/ml. 10% of eagles exhibited Pb blood concentrations suggestive of recent exposure (>0.200 mg/ml).

B.

Concentration in Eggs

1.

In 1968, 25 bald eagle eggs were collected from nests in Maine, Wisconsin, and Florida (Krantz et al., 1970). Metal concentrations were similar in all three states with values ranging from 2.0-8.0 g/g dry weight for Cu, 36-65 g/g for Zn, and 42-147 g/g for Fe.

2.

From 1969-1970, mean concentrations of Hg ranged from 0.2 g/g to 0.5 g/g in 23 eggs collected from Alaska, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, and Florida (Wiemeyer et al., 1972).

3.

From 1969-1979, Hg was detected in all eggs collected from various breeding areas in 14 states (Wiemeyer et al., 1984). The greatest mean concentrations were in Maine (0.35 to 1.0 g/g mean wet weight from 1974 to 1979). Maximum concentrations in Wisconsin were 0.62 g/g and 0.42 g/g in Florida. Concentrations in all other states were 0.23 g/g.

4.

Thirteen addled bald eagle eggs collected in 1971, 1976, 1977, and 1980 from northwestern Ontario contained Hg concentrations of 0.41-3.91 g/g dry weight (Grier, 1982).

5.

Mercury was detected at a mean concentration of 0.14 g/g wet weight in eleven eggs collected in Arizona from 1977 to 1985 (Grubb et al., 1990).

6.

From 1979-1983, Hg concentrations in bald eagle eggs collected from southcentral Oregon ranged from 0.031 to 0.19 g/g wet weight (Frenzel, 1985).

7.

In 1980 and 1982, Hg concentrations in addled eggs collected from Madeline and Michigan Islands were 0.4 and 0.47 g/g, respectively (unpublished data from Wiemeyer in Kozie, 1986).

8.

From 1980-1984, eggs were collected from approximately 75 different breeding areas in 15 states and Hg was detected in eggs from every site (Wiemeyer et al., 1993). The highest concentrations were found in eggs from Maine, specifically Hockamock Point and Brandy Pond in 1980 (1.1 and 1.3 g/g wet weight, respectively) and Round Pond in 1981 (0.75 g/g). Concentrations of Hg in all other eggs were 0.47 g/g.

9.

From 1985-1987, thirteen eggs were collected from the Columbia River Estuary and analyzed for Hg (0.20 g/g wet weight), Cd (0.10 g/g), and Pb (0.21 g/g) (Anthony et al., 1993).

10.

From 1990-92, 32 bald eagle eggs were collected from the south coast of British Columbia, including locations near bleached-kraft pulp mills, the highly industrialized Fraser River estuary, and reference sites on the Pacific coast of Canada (Elliot et al., 1996c). Geometric mean Hg concentrations, mainly as MeHg, from seven sites ranged from 0.08-0.294 g/g wet weight. Concentrations were significantly higher in the lower Fraser Valley and the reference site in the Johnstone Strait than the pulp mill region of the Georgia Strait.

11.

During the summers of 1993 and 1994, unhatched bald eagle eggs (N=25) were collected from Adak, Tanga, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA (Anthony et al., 1999).  Several elements were detected at background concentrations, including Cr (geometric means ranged from 0.69-1.29 g/g dry weight), Cu (3.32-4.09 g/g), Fe (69.5 87.3 g/g), Mg (546 654 g/g), Sr (9.23 11.2 g/g), and Zn (43.6 38.3 g/g); mean concentrations did not differ between sites.  Hg (1.00 2.50 g/g) and Se (3.92 4.93 g/g)were above background levels.  Hg concentration was significantly higher in Kiska Island; this island had reduced productivity in addition to high DDT and Hg levels.  Mn (LOD 1.30 g/g)and Ni (LOD 3.72 g/g) were detected in few samples.  Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Mo, and Pb were detected in ≤5 eggs (concentrations not given). 

C.

Other

1.

From 1978 to 1980, regurgitated eagle pellets were collected from wintering locations throughout Nebraska (Lingle and Krapu, 1988). Of 2858 pellets, 1832 contained waterfowl remains, and only 9 (0.3%) of those which contained waterfowl remains also contained Pb shot.

2.

In 1978, bald eagle castings were collected from the Lac Qui Parle Wildlife Refuge (Bengston, 1984). Canada goose remains were present in a majority (70.7%) of the castings. The number of casting that were positive for shot was highest in 1981 (19.1%) and lowest in 1983 (9.1%). Of those positive for shot, the percent containing Pb shot ranged from 44.4% to 96.3%.

3.

From 1985-1986, the impact of secondary poisoning in bald eagles was examined in Holla Bend located in Arkansas (Nelson et al, 1989). By examining the castings, it was found that some of the main food items were snow geese, mallards, chickens, rabbits, and opossum. Six, or 7.3% of the castings contained Pb shot. In addition to examining castings, the carcasses of 31 waterfowl were also examined. Nine or 29% of the waterfowl carcasses examined contained Pb shot. The average number of Pb pellets per carcass was 4.1.

IV.

Petroleum

 

No residue data available

V.

Other Contaminants

1.

Bald eagle plasma collected between 1989 and 1992 had the following concentrations (in ng/g) of perfluorooctane sulfonate: 30 (Lower Penn, MI, 163 days, female), 31 (Upper Penn, MI, unknown), 34 (Voyageurs, MN, 228 days, female), 34 (Lower Penn, MI, 82 days, male), 77 (Upper Penn, MI, unknown), 165 (North America, nestling), 198 (North America, nestling), 226 (Devils Island, WI, nestling, female), 371 (Mud Creek, OH, nestling), 374 (Carroll Township, nestling), 494 (Lake Superior, Ontario, nestling, female), and 1047 (North America, adult, female) (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company, 2000).

2.

An immature female bald eagle found dead in Eagle River Flats contained 0.060 g/g wet weight white phosphorus in the fat and 0.010 g/g in the skin (Roebuck et al., 1994).

3.

Five bald eagle carcasses were collected between Jan 1998 and Dec 2001 in New York State (Stone et al., 2003). Their livers were tested for the frequency of anticoagulant rodenticides, which resulted in 1 detection (of 5). Anticoagulants were detected in 49% of the 265 raptors collected.

 Bald Eagle Contaminant Response Data

I.

Organochlorine Contaminants

A.

Eggshell Thinning and Reproduction

1.

Bald eagle eggs collected from 21 nests in three states were analyzed for eggshell thickness (Krantz et al., 1970). Wisconsin and Maine eggs had similar values (0.55 mm and 0.53 mm) despite greater levels of DDE and dieldrin in the Maine eggs. Florida eggs had a mean thickness of 0.50 mm. Nests observed in Maine, which contained the highest levels of DDE and dieldrin, had no reproductive success from 1962 to 1967.

2.

Reproduction of bald eagles in northwestern Ontario declined from 1.26 young per breeding area in 1966 to a low of 0.46 in 1974 and then increased to 1.12 in 1981 (Grier, 1982). Levels of DDE in eggs before and after the DDT ban were significantly different and were correlated with reproductive productivity. Shell thickness of 16 eggs increased from a low of 0.48 mm in 1971 and 1976 samples, to a high of 0.66 mm in a 1980 sample.

3.

Addled eggs collected from northwestern Ontario between 1967 and 1972 were, on average, 13% thinner than pre-1947 values (Grier, 1974). An overall decline in the number of breeding areas that produced nestlings was found from 1966 to 1973. The maximum number of breeding areas producing young was highest in 1966 (74%) and lowest in 1970 (36%). At the studys end in 1973, 45% of areas produced young. Eggs collected from these areas contained elevated concentrations of DDE, dieldrin, and PCB.

4.

Eggshell thickness was measured in 23 eggs collected from Alaska, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, and Florida in 1969 and 1970 (Wiemeyer et al., 1972). Areas with eggs that were significantly thinner than 1946 eggs were the Kodiak area of Alaska (-10.4%), the Great Lakes states (-10.2%), Florida (-11.3%) and Maine (-11.0%). In the Admiralty area of Alaska, shell thickness increased by 2.2 %.

5.

From 1969 through 1979, bald eagle eggs were collected from various breeding areas in 14 states (Wiemeyer et al., 1984). Shells with a thickness significantly lower than pre-1946 values were found in Minnesota (-12%), Wisconsin (-8%), Michigan (-16%), Maine (-13%), Maryland (-11%) and Virginia (-18%). DDE was most highly correlated with shell thickness as well as mean 5-year production values. Both parameters were also inversely correlated with DDD + DDT, PCB, and oxychlordane, and shell thickness alone with mirex. Many contaminants were intercorrelated, making it difficult to determine which had adverse effects on reproduction and shell thickness.

6.

From 1970 to 1992, the South Shore Nesting Territory located in northcentral California did not produce a single fledgling (Jenkins, 1995). After nest failure in 1984 and 1985, DDE concentrations in four eggs ranged from 4.2-8.4 g/g wet weight. In three of the eggs, the embryos were dead and one of the eggs was infertile. Eggshells were found to be between 6.9 and 11.5% thinner than eggshells prior to the use of DDT.

7.

Eleven bald eagle eggs collected in Arizona from 1977-1985 had a mean thickness of 0.539 mm, an 8.8% decrease from eggs measured prior to the widespread use of DDT (Grubb et al., 1990).

8.

The number of immature migrating bald eagles observed in Bake Oven Knob, Pennsylvania was higher from 1977 to 1991 than the number observed from 1961 to 1976 (Heintzelman, 1992). It was hypothesized that the use of DDT may explain the change in age ratios.

9.

Shell thinning in eggs collected in southcentral Oregon from 1979-1983 ranged from a 10% increase to a 20% decrease (Frenzel, 1985).

10.

From 1980-1984, eggs were collected from 15 states throughout the United States (Wiemeyer et al., 1993). Significant decreases in shell thickness from pre-1946 values were detected in Oregon (-11%), Wisconsin (-7%), Ohio (-11%), Maine (-14%), Maryland (-14%), and Virginia (-13%), though none of this thinning was found to be biologically significant. DDE was thought to be most closely related to shell thickness. Young production was also correlated with DDE, appearing normal when sampled eggs contained <3.6 g/g wet weight, nearly halved when levels were between 3.6 to 6.3 g/g, and halved again at levels >6.3 g/g.

11.

From 1984-1986, productivity was measured in bald eagle colonies located in Lake Superior and further inland (Kozie and Anderson, 1991). Organochlorine and metal analysis of tissues indicated that the Lake Superior colonies were more contaminated, and productivity was accordingly lower from 1983 to 1988 in those colonies. Specifically, nest success in the Lake Superior colonies was 57% compared to a success rate of 77% in the colonies further inland. Eggshells measured from 1983-1987 showed that in comparison to pre-1946 norms, thickness ranged from a 5% increase in the outer Island to an 8% decrease on North Twin Island.

12.

The mean thickness of 17 bald eagle eggs collected from 1985-1987 from the Columbia River estuary was 0.548 mm representing 10% thinning (Anthony et al., 1993). Overall nest success between 1980 and 1987 was only 39%.

13.

From 1986 to 1990, addled bald eagle eggs were collected in the Great Lakes region (Bowerman et al., 1994a). Productivity was significantly inversely correlated with addled egg mean concentrations of PCBs, DDE, and dieldrin.

14.

All bald eagle eggs analyzed from 1987-1991 from Santa Catalina Island, California, broke while in the nest or the embryo died during artificial incubation except for one (Jenkins et al., 1994). The eggs analyzed from this area had high levels of DDE, ranging from 210 to 1,100 mg/g lipid weight.

15.

Productivity did not change over a ten-year study (1986-1996) done on Green Bay bald eagle nests (Dykstra et al., 2001). Productivity of Green Bay nests was 50% lower than that of inland Wisconsin nests.

16.

From 1990-92, 32 bald eagle eggs were collected from the south coast of British Columbia, including locations near bleached-kraft pulp mills, the highly industrialized Fraser River estuary, and at reference sites on the Pacific coast of Canada (Elliot et al., 1996c). Mean eggshell thickness ranged from 0.558-0.590 cm, representing thinning from pre-1947 values of 3.1% in the Powell River, a pulp mill site, to 8.3% in the lower Fraser Valley.

17.

Organochlorine contaminants were related to decreased reproductive success at two bald eagle nest sites on the Delaware Bay, New Jersey, between 1993 and 1997 (Clark et al., 1998).  A nest site at Raccoon Creek experienced reproductive failure between 1992 and 1997, and a nest site at Stow Creek exhibited normal reproduction from 1990 to 1996 (2.28 young/year) and failure in 1997.  Concentrations of DDE in eggs collected from failed nests (12-18 g/g fresh weight in 4 eggs from Raccoon Creek and 6.3 g/g in 1 egg from Stow Creek) were associated with productivity decreases of 75% and 50%, respectively, based on predictive equations.  PCBs were also present at concentrations associated with reproductive impairment in eagles (24-54 g/g and 20 g/g), and were highly correlated with DDE concentrations.  Eggshells from Raccoon Creek exhibited 11.0-14.1% thinning compared to pre-1946 values, but did not reach the thresholds associated with population decline.  The egg collected from Stow Creek showed no thinning.

18.

Bald eagle breeding success was determined in nine colonies on the coast of British Columbia from 1991-1995, including those near pulp mills, agriculture or industrial activity (Elliott and Norstrom, 1998). Productivity was high in most breeding areas and only weakly related to DDE concentrations in plasma. There was no relationship between individual nest productivity and contaminant levels in eggs. In the Crofton study area, productivity (0.26 young/occupied territory) was found to be significantly lower in nine territories adjacent to a dioxin-fishery closure zone, than productivity (1.0 young/occupied territory) at eight territories outside of the closure area.

19.

During the summers of 1993 and 1994, unhatched bald eagle eggs (N=25) were collected from Adak, Tanga, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA (Anthony et al., 1999).  Clutch size ranged from 1.6-2.7 (mean 2.2), with no consistent differences between islands or years.  Nest success ranged from 48% (Kiska Island) to 86% (Amchitka Island).  Productivity ranged from 0.65 young per occupied nest site (Kiska Island, 1993) to 1.24 young per occupied nest site (Amchitka island 1994).  The low productivity on Kiska Island was associated with levels of DDE known to cause reproductive problems in bald eagles, and elevated levels of Hg.  Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with PCB concentrations. 

20.

Blood plasma was collected from 309 nestling bald eagles from 10 sites in the Great Lakes between 1987 and 1992 (Bowerman et al., 2003). All productivity measurements were significantly and inversely correlated with geometric mean concentrations of PCBs and DDE in plasma. These measurements include productivity within sub populations, the ability to produce two or three young, and success rates in subpopulations.

B.

Dieldrin and DDE Poisoning

1.

Dieldrin poisoning was the suspected cause of death in 1 of 76 eagles collected between 1960 and 1965 (Coon et al., 1970). The eagle was found near Vernon, Vermont in 1964 and had a dieldrin concentration of 8.0 g/g in brain.

2.

Two eagles with elevated concentrations of dieldrin, DDE, and DDT were found near death in 1967 (Newton, Connecticut) and 1968 (Belleview, Florida) (Reichel et al., 1969b). The eagle from Florida, an adult female, was observed falling out of the sky and experienced alternating periods of convulsions and tremors before its death three hours later. The eagle from Connecticut, an immature female, was found on the ground in tremors and died in convulsions shortly after capture. Both eagles had depleted fat reserves.

3.

From 1967-1968, eight eagles with brain residues of 3.6 to 9.5 g/g wet weight were believed to have succumbed to dieldrin poisoning (Mulhern et al., 1970).

4.

In 1969 and 1970, there were six cases of suspected dieldrin poisoning of bald eagles (Belisle et al., 1972). Dieldrin in the brains of these birds ranged from 4.6 to 11 g/g.

5.

In 1971 and 1972, cause of death was examined in 37 bald eagles found dead in 18 states throughout the United States (Cromartie et al., 1975). Dieldrin concentrations in the brains of 4 birds diagnosed with dieldrin poisoning were 4.0-7.8 g/g. Nine birds were reported to have died of thallium poisoning.

6.

From 1973-1974, bald eagles found dead or moribund were collected throughout the United States (Prouty et al., 1977). Dieldrin concentrations in the brains of 4 birds diagnosed with dieldrin poisoning were 3.6-7.9 g/g.

7.

From 1975-1977, 168 bald eagles were collected from 29 states throughout the United States (Kaiser et al., 1980). Five incidents of dieldrin poisoning (brain residues from 6.8 to 11.0 g/g) and two incidents endrin poisoning (brain residues from 0.71 and 1.2 g/g) were suspected.

8.

In 1979 and 1980, five eagles collected from Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin with brain residues of 5.1-6.9 g/g wet weight were believed to have died from dieldrin poisoning (Reichel et al., 1984).

9.

From 1989-94, 75 bald eagles found dead in British Columbia had a negative correlation between concentrations of PCBs and DDE and body condition (Elliott et al., 1996b).

10.

A 12-year old female bald eagle found on Santa Catalina Island, California, with a concentration of 212.5 g/g wet weight DDE in the brain was suspected to have died from DDE poisoning (Garcelon and Thomas, 1997). The eagle exhibited signs of central nervous system disorder, including positional nystagmus, ataxia, body feathers held erect, and uncontrolled tremors. Necropsy revealed the complete absence of subcutaneous, abdominal, coronary, and perirenal fat.

II.

Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides

1.

The death of bald eagles following the consumption of dead bovines and cows treated with fenthion was documented in Iowa, California, and Idaho (Henny et al., 1987). Cholinesterase activity in the brains was suppressed by more than 50%.

2.

In 1983, a female bald eagle, unable to fly, was collected near Lewis, Delaware, and died within two days (Franson et al., 1985). Results from the subsequent necropsy indicated that ChE activity in the brain was depressed by over 85%. The cause of ChE inhibition was famphur, a pesticide used to keep warbles off cattle. As smaller birds typically consume the warbles, it is believed that the death of the eagle was the result of secondary poisoning.

3.

In 1990, six bald eagles in good body condition were found in British Columbia, Canada, in agricultural areas adjacent to a golf course in Richmond or on farmlands in Ladner (Elliott et al., 1996a). Three eagles found alive had poor coordination, constricted pupils, and a distended crop. Brain ChE activity in a deceased bird with carbofuran detected in the crop was 16 mol/min/g. The finding of duck parts in the stomach contents of four eagles led to the suspicion of secondary poisoning.

4.

In December 1992, three bald eagles were poisoned in north-central Kansas by flowable carbofuran placed on sheep carcasses to kill coyote (Allen et al., 1996).

5.

In February 1998, an individual bald eagle was found lying in a grass seed field with rigid legs and tightly clenched feet; it was treated for organophosphate poisoning (Shimmel and Snell 1999).  Cholinesterase and complete blood count values from days 3 and 17, respectively were, cholinesterase (IU/L) 62 and 617; white blood cell count 18,000 and 11,000; hematocrit (%) 38 and 37; heterophils (%) 90 and 84; heterophil bands (%) 1 and no value reported; lymphocytes (%) 4 and 11; monocytes (%) 4 and 4; eosinophils (%) 1 and 1; thrombocytes adequate and adequate; plasma protein (g/dL) 4.1 and 3.7; reticulocyte estimate 1+ and 2+; and blood Pb not detected.  On day 27 after capture the bird was released, in excellent condition.

III.

Trace Elements, Metals, and Metalloids

1.

Lead poisoning was suspected in an immature bald eagle found in western Maryland that contained 75 Pb shot in the gizzard and elevated liver and kidney concentrations (Jacobson et al., 1977). The bird was found weak, with a noticeable head tilt, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. The feathers were stained with watery green feces, and yellowish greed mucoid material lined the oral cavity. Histopathologic findings included pulmonary congestion, hemorrhage, edema, and slight intestinal inflammation; mild catarrhal enteritis; and mild nonsuppurative interstitial nephritis.

2.

From 1978 to 1981, 17 bald eagles collected from 12 states died from suspected Pb poisoning (Reichel et al., 1984). Lead concentrations in the liver of these birds ranged from 11-61 g/g wet weight.

3.

A bald eagle found dead in the Klamath Basin, Oregon and California, between 1979 and 1982, had a hepatic Pb concentration of 27.0 g/g wet weight and was diagnosed with Pb poisoning (Frenzel and Anthony, 1989).

4.

In 1981, a bald eagle was captured after exhibiting poor health (Hennes, 1985). The concentration of Pb in its blood was 2.4 g/g. In 1983, another bird was collected from Lac Qui Parle Wildlife Refuge and died shortly after capture. The level of Pb in this bird was 1.36 g/g in blood and 12.46 g/g in liver.

5.

A seven year old bird was found in Alaska unable to fly (Janssen et al., 1979). The bird was found to have dyspnea, ataxia, and its head was tilted. In addition, the hematocrit of the bird dropped from 48% to 39% in two months. Prior to the initiation of treatment, the bird died. Tissue analysis indicated the Pb was at a concentration of 26 g/g wet weight in the liver and 8.8 g/g in the kidney.

6.

ALAD values were decreased approximately 80% following the ingestion of Pb shot by bald eagles (Hoffman et al., 1981). Seven days after exposure to Pb shot (10 shot), hematocrit and hemoglobin decreased significantly.

7.

Five bald eagles were dosed with #4 Pb shot (Pattee et al., 1981). The number of shot given each bird ranged from 10 to 156. The bird surviving after dosing went blind and was sacrificed. The highest values of Pb were in the liver, femur, humerus, and tibia. Lead in the birds that died ranged from 11.5-27.0 g/g wet weight in liver, 7.8-15.0 g/g in the femur, 8.4-17.0 g/g in the humerus, and 9.1-12.0 g/g in the tibia. The highest values in the bird which was sacrificed were in the femur (12.2 g/g), the humerus (13.6 g/g), and the tibia (13.8 g/g) .

8.

In 1989, three intoxicated bald eagles ultimately died from Pb poisoning in British Columbia (Langelier et al., 1991). Analysis of Pb in the liver (50 g/g) and the kidney (12 g/g) was performed on the first bird that died. In the second and third birds that died, Pb in the liver was 31 and 5 g/g, respectively.

9.

From 1989 through 1990, 9 of 65 bald eagle carcasses collected from British Columbia showed symptoms of Pb poisoning (Elliott et al., 1992). Mean Pb levels of 34 g/g dry weight in the kidneys and 7.3 g/g in the bone were associated with a mean ALAD ratio of 16.7. Fifteen of the 65 collected exhibited Pb concentrations at subclinical levels. In these birds, mean Pb concentrations (only from detectable results) of 2.8 g/g in the kidney, and 1.9 g/g in the bone were associated with an ALAD ratio of 2.8.

10.

A two-year-old male bald eagle found on the shore of the Quatse River, Vancouver Island, in a depressed state died overnight (Gill and Langelier, 1994). A copper-jacketed, Pb .22 caliber bullet was found in the lumen of the midgastric region of the stomach, and concentrations of Pb were elevated to 25 g/g wet weight in kidney and 29 g/g in liver. The eagle was otherwise in good bodily condition.

IV.

Petroleum

1.

Radio-tagged bald eagles were monitored beginning four months after (Bowman et al., 1995). The was no difference in survival rates between eagles radiotagged in oiled areas and those radiotagged in unoiled areas of Prince William Sound.

2.

Adult eagles (N=114) were trapped and 23 recovered following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Redig et al., 1990). Information based on body condition and blood analysis indicated that those birds which were exposed to oil had a significantly lower packed cell volume. In addition, the liver and general body enzymes were found to increase significantly. Kidney function did not appear altered by exposure to oil, as no significant difference in uric acid and creatinine was seen between oiled and non oiled birds. No difference was found in the Aspergillus titer between oiled and non oiled birds.

3.

From June through August, 1989, of 113 bald eagles captured after the Exxon Valdez oil spill, 86% were found to be in good health and 15% in excellent health (Gibson and White, 1990). Of the eagles captured, 39% exhibited no evidence of oil and 35% were lightly oiled. In 1990 1,031 active nests were found in the Prince William Sound area.

4.

The effect of the oil spill on bald eagles nesting in Prince William Sound was studied one and two years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (White et al., 1993). No negative effect was noted.

5.

Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, bald eagle nesting success was determined in several regions of coastal south-central Alaska in 1989 and 1990 (Bernatowicz et al., 1996). Average nest success was 54%, with 0.96 young produced per active nest. All sites showed similar reproductive success, with the exception of western Prince William Sound where, in 1989, nest success was 30% and only 0.39 young per active nest were produced. This region rebounded in 1990 to 64% nest success and 1.04 young produced per occupied nest, levels comparable to other study sites.

6.

The Prince William Sound bald eagle population was measured between 1989-1991 and in 1995 to determine the impact of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on its numbers (Bowman et al., 1997). The population was found to have returned to its pre-spill levels by 1995 with population indices of 2199, 1935, 2166, and 2641 in order of ascending years studied.

V.

Other

1.

An immature female bald eagle was found dead on Lake Ontario near Kendall in Orleans County was diagnosed with warfarin poisoning (Stone, 1995/1996). 

Bald Eagle References

Allen, G.T., J.K. Veatch, R.K Stroud, C.G. Vendel, R.H. Poppenga, L. Thompson, J.A. Shafer, and W.E. Braselton. 1996. Winter poisoning of coyotes and raptors with furadan-laced carcass baits. J. Wildl. Dis. 32:385-389.

Anthony, R.G., M.G. Garrett, and C.A. Schuler. 1993. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary. J. Wildl. Manage. 57:10-19.

Anthony, R.G., A.K. Miles, J.A. Estes, and F.B. Isaacs.  1999.  Productivity, diets, and environmental contaminants in nesting bald eagles from the Aleutian Archipelago.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 18:2054-2062. 

Barbehenn, K.R., and Reichel, W.L. 1981. Organochlorine concentrations in bald eagles: Brain/body lipid relations and hazard evaluation. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 8:325-330.

Belisle, A.A., W.L. Reichel, L.N. Locke, T.G. Lamont, B.M. Mulhern, R.M. Prouty, R.B. DeWolf, and E. Cromartie. 1972. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1969 and 1970. Pestic. Monit. J. 6:133-138.

Bengston, F.L. 1984. Studies of lead toxicity in bald eagles at the Lac Qui Parle Wildlife Refuge, M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota.

Bernatowicz, J.A., P.F. Schempf, and T.D. Bowman. 1996. Bald eagle productivity in south-central Alaska in 1989 and 1990 after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Amer. Fisher. Soc. Sympos. 18:785-797.

Bowerman, W.W., C.J. Mehne, D.A. Best, K.R. Refsal, S. Lombardini and W.C. Bridges. 2002. Adrenal corticotropin hormone and nestling bald eagle corticosterone levels. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 68:355-360.

Bowerman, W.W, D.A. Best, J.P. Giesy, Jr., T.J. Kubiak, and J.G. Sikarskie. 1994a.  The influence of environmental contaminants on bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations in the Laurentian Great Lakes, North America. Raptor Cons. Today, pp. 703-707.

Bowerman, W.W., E.D. Evans, J.P. Giesy, and S. Postupalsky. 1994b. Using feathers to assess risk of mercury and selenium to bald eagle reproduction in the Great lakes region. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27:294-298.

Bowerman, W.W., D.A. Best, J.P. Giesy, M.C. Shieldcastle, M.W. Meyer, S. Postupalsky and J.G. Sikarskie. 2003. Associations between regional differences in polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene in blood of nestling bald eagles and reproductive productivity. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22(2):371-376.

Bowman, T.D., P.F. Schempf, and J.A. Bernatowicz. 1995. Bald eagle survival and population dynamics in Alaska after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. J. Wildl. Manage. 59:317-324.

Bowman, T. D., P. F. Schempf, and J.I. Hodges. 1997. Bald eagle population in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:962-967.

Bull, J. and J. Farrand, Jr. 1977. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 784 pp.

Clark, K.E., L.J. Niles, and W. Stansley.  1998.  Environmental contaminants associated with reproductive failure in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs in New Jersey.  Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  61:247-254.

Collier, J.L., S.S. Hurley, W.E. Welborn, and L.G. Hansen. 1976. Comparative residues of PCB components in the bald eagle and white leghorns. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16:182-189.

Coon, N.C., L.N. Locke, E. Cromartie, and W.L. Reichel. 1970. Causes of bald eagle mortality, 1960-1965. J. Wildl. Dis. 6:72-76.

Craig, T.H., J.W. Connelly, E.H. Craig, and T.L. Parker. 1990. Lead concentrations in golden and bald eagles. Wilson Bull. 102:130-133.

Cromartie, E., W.L. Reichel, L.N. Locke, A.A. Belisle, T.E. Kaiser, T.G. Lamont, B.M. Mulhern, R.M. Prouty, and D.M. Swineford. 1975. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72. Pestic. Monit. J. 9:11-14.

Donaldson, G.M., J.L Shutt, and P. Hunter.  1999.  Organochlorine contamination in bald eagle eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes.  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  36:70-80.

Dunning, Jr., J.B., ed. 1993. CRC Handbook of Avian Body Masses. CRC Press, Ann Arbor. 371 pp.

Dykstra, C.R., M.W. Meyer, D.K. Warnke, W.H. Karasov, D.E. Anderson, W.W. Bowerman IV, and J.P. Giesy.  1998.  Low reproductive rates of Lake Superior bald eagles: low food delivery rates or environmental contaminants?  J. Great Lakes Res.  24:32-44.

Dykstra, C.R., M.W. Meyer, K.L. Stromborg, D.K. Warnke, W.W. Bowerman IV, D.A. Best. 2001. Association of low reproductive rates and high contaminant levels in bald eagles on Green Bay, Lake Michigan. 27:239-251.

Ehrlich, P.R., D.S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The Birders Handbook. Simon & Schuster, New York. 785 pp.

Elliott, J.E., and R.J. Norstrom. 1998. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants and productivity of bald eagle populations on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17:1142-1153.

Elliott, J.E., K.M. Langelier, A.M. Scheuhammer, P.H. Sinclair, and P.E. Whitehead. 1992. Incidence of lead poisoning in bald eagles and lead shot in waterfowl gizzards from British Columbia, 1988-91. Can. Wildl. Serv. Prog. Notes No. 200. 7p.

Elliott, J.E., K.M. Langelier, P. Mineau, and L.K. Wilson. 1996a. Poisoning of bald eagles and red-tailed hawks by carbofuran and fensulfothion in the Fraser Delta of British Columbia, Canada. J. Wildl. Dis. 32:486-491.

Elliott, J.E., L.K. Wilson, K.W. Langelier, and R.J. Norstrom. 1996b. Bald eagle mortality and chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in livers from British Columbia, Canada, 1989-1994. Environ. Pollut. 94:9-18.

Elliott, J.E., R.J. Norstrom, and G.E.J. Smith. 1996c. Patterns, trends and toxicological significance of chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Pacific Coast of Canada, 1990-1994. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 31:354-367.

Franson, J.C., E.J. Kolbe, and J.W. Carpenter. 1985. Famphur toxicosis in a bald eagle. J. Wildl. Dis. 21:318-320.

Frenzel, R.W. 1985. Environmental contaminants and ecology of bald eagles in southcentral Oregon, Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University.

Frenzel, R.W. and R.G. Anthony. 1989. Relationship of diets and environmental contaminants in wintering bald eagles. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:792-802.

Garcelon, D.K., and N.J. Thomas. 1997. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle. J. Wildl. Dis. 33:299-303.

Gibson, M.J., and J. White. 1990. Results of the eagle capture, health assessment, and short-tern rehabilitation program following the Valdez oil spill. Wildl. J. 13:49-57.

Gilbertson, M. and L. Reynolds. 1974. A summary of DDE and PCB determinations in Canadian birds, 1969 to 1972. Can. Wildl. Serv. Occas. Pap.; no. 19. 18 pp.

Gill, C.E. and K.M. Langelier. 1994. Acute lead poisoning in a bald eagle secondary to bullet ingestion. Can. Vet. J. 35:303-304.

Grier, J.W. 1974. Reproduction, organochlorines, and mercury in northwestern Ontario bald eagles. Can. Field-Nat. 88:469-475.

Grier, J.W. 1982. Ban of DDT and subsequent recovery of reproduction in bald eagles. Science 218: 1232-1235.

Grubb, T.G., S.N. Wiemeyer, and L. F. Kiff. 1990. Eggshell thinning and contaminant levels in bald eagle eggs from Arizona, 1977 to 1985. Southwest. Nat. 35:298-301.

Harmata, A.R. and M. Restani. 1995.  Environmental contaminants and cholinesterase in blood of vernal migrant bald and golden eagles in Montana.  Intermountain J. of Science 1:1-15.

Heintzelman, D.S. 1992. Long term monitoring of migrant bald eagle and golden eagle age ratios and their use as environmental quality indicators. Amer. Hawkwatcher 18:14-17.

Hennes, S.K. 1985. Lead shot ingestion and lead residues in migrant bald eagles at the Lac Qui Parle Wildlife Management Area, Minnesota, M.S. thesis, University of Minnesota.

Henny, C. J., C. R. Griffin, D. W. Stahlecker, A. R. Harmata, and E. Cromartie. 1981. Low DDT residues in plasma of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) wintering in Colorado and Missouri. Can. Field-Nat. 95:249-252.

Henny, C. J., E. J. Kolbe, E. F. Hill, and L. J. Blus. 1987. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock. J. Wildl. Dis. 23:292-295.

Hoffman, D.J., O.H. Pattee, S.N. Wiemeyer, and B. Mulhern. 1981. Effects of lead shot ingestion on delta-s.gif (58 bytes)-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, hemoglobin concentration, and serum chemistry in bald eagles. J. Wildl. Dis. 17:423-431.

Jacobson, E., J.W. Carpenter, and M. Novilla. 1977. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 171:952-954.

Janssen, D.L., P.T. Robinson, P.T., and P.K. Ensley. 1979. Lead toxicosis in three captive avian species. Annual Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, pp.40-42.

Jenkins, J.M. 1995. Chronic reproductive failures at a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting territory in northern California. J. Raptor Res. 29:35-36.

Jenkins, J.M., R.M. Jurek, D.K. Garcelon, R. Mesta, W.Grainger Hunt, R.E. Jackman, D.E. Driscoll, and R.W. Risebrough. 1994. DDE contamination and population parameters of bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus in California and Arizona, USA.  Raptor Cons. Today, pp. 751-756.

Kaiser, T.E., W.L. Reichel, L.N. Locke, E. Cromartie, A.J. Krynitsky, T.G. Lamont, B.M. Mulhern, R.M. Prouty, C.J. Stafford, and D.M. Swineford. 1980. Organochlorine pesticide, PCB, and PBB residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 29 states 1975-77. Pestic. Monit. J. 13:145-149.

Kozie, K.D. 1986. Breeding and feeding ecology of bald eagles in the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point.

Kozie, K.D., and R. K. Anderson. 1991. Productivity, diet, and environmental contaminants in bald eagles nesting near the Wisconsin shoreline of Lake Superior. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20:41-48.

Krantz, W.C., B.M. Mulhern, G.E. Bagley, A. Sprunt, IV, F.J. Ligas, and W.B. Robertson, Jr. 1970. Organochlorine and heavy metal residues in bald eagle eggs. Pestic. Monit. J., 4:136-140.

Kumar, K.S., K. Kannan, J.P. Geisy and S. Masunaga. 2002. Distribution and elemination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxons, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p΄-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Environ. Sci. Tech. 36:2789-2796.

Langelier, K.M., C.E. Andress, T.K. Grey, C. Wooldridge, R.J. Lewis, and R Marchetti. 1991. Lead poisoning in bald eagles in British Columbia. Can. Vet. J. 32:108-109.

Lingle, G.R. and G.L. Krapu. 1988. Ingestion of lead shot and aluminum bands by bald eagles during winter in Nebraska. Wilson Bull. 100:326-327.

McVey, M., K. Hall, P. Trenham, A. Soast, L. Frymier, and A. Hirst. 1993. Wildlife Exposure Factors Handbook, Volume I. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C., EPA/600/R-93/187a.

Miller, M.J.R, M.E. Wayland, and G.R. Bortolotti. 2001a. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada. Environ. Pollut. 112: 153-162.

Miller, M.J.R., M.E. Wayland, and G.R. Bortolotti. 2001b. Hemograms for and nutritional condition of migrant bald eagles tested for exposure to lead. J. Wildl. Dis. 37:481-488.

Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company (3M). 2000. Sulfonated perfluorochemicals in the environment: sources, dispersion, fate and effects. Unpublished Report. March 1, 2000. 51 pp.

Mulhern, B.M., W.L. Reichel, L.N. Locke, T.G. Lamont, A. Belisle, E. Cromartie, G.E. Bagley, and R.M. Prouty. 1970. Organochlorine residues and autopsy data from bald eagles 1966-68. Pestic. Monit. J. 4:141-144.

Nelson, T.A., C. Mitchell, and C. Abbott. 1989. Lead-shot ingestion by bald eagles in western Arkansas. Southwest. Nat. 34:245-249.

Niles, L.J. 1995. Bale eagle. In L.E. Dove and R.M. Nyman, eds., Living Resources of the Delaware Estuary. Delaware Estuary Program. pp.359-373.

Nisbet, I.C.T. and R.W. Risebrough.  1994.  Relationship of DDE to productivity of bald eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus in California and Arizona, USA.  Raptor Cons. Today.  pp. 771-773.

Ohlendorf, H.M. and W.J. Fleming. 1988. Birds and environmental contaminants in San Francisco and Chesapeake Bays. Marine Pollut. Bull. 19:487-495.

Pattee, O.H., S.N. Wiemeyer, B.M. Mulhern, L. Sileo, and J.W. Carpenter. 1981. Experimental lead-shot poisoning in bald eagles. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:806-810.

Prouty, R.M., W.L. Reichel, L.N. Locke, A.A. Belisle, E. Cromartie, T.E. Kaiser, T.G. Lamont, B.M. Mulhern, and D.M. Swineford. 1977. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74. Pestic. Monit. J. 11:134-137.

Redig, P.T., J. White, J. Scott, J. Dunnette, P. Lind, and B. Talbot. 1990. A medical assessment of bald eagles from Prince William Sound in the wake of the Exxon lube job. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Conference of the Association of Avian Veterinarians, Phoenix, Arizona, September 10-15, pp. 171-174.

Reichel, W.L., E. Cromartie, T.G. Lamont, B.M. Mulhern, and R.M. Prouty. 1969a. Residues in fish, wildlife, and estuaries. Pestic. Monitor. J. 3:142-144.

Reichel, W.L., T.G. Lamont, E. Cromartie, and L.N. Locke. 1969b. Residues in two bald eagles suspected of dieldrin poisoning. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 4:24-30.

Reichel, W.L., S.K. Schmeling, E. Cromartie, T.E. Kaiser, A.J. Krynitsky, T.G. Lamont, B.M. Mulhern, R.M. Prouty, C.J. Stafford, and D.M. Swineford. 1984. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states 1978-1981. Environ. Monitor. Assess. 4:395-403.

Roebuck, B.D., M.E. Walsh, C.H. Racine, L. Reitsma, B. Steele, and S.-I. Nam. 1994. Predation of ducks poisoned by white phosphorus: Exposure and risk to predators. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13:1613-1618.

Shimmel, L.S., and K.Snell.  1999.  Case studies in poisoning two eagles.  Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine, 8:12-20. 

Stafford, C.J., W.L. Reichel, D.M. Swineford, R.M. Prouty, and M.L. Gay. 1978. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of kepone in field-collected avian tissues and eggs. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chem. 61:8-14.

Stone, W.B., J.C. Okoniewski and J.R. Stedelin. 2003. Anticoagulant rodenticides and raptors:recent findings from New York, 1998-2001. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70:34-40.

Stone, W.B. 1995/1996. Wildlife Pathology Unit Annual Report. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Delmar, New York. 81 pp.

Stout, J.H. and K.A. Trust. 2002. Elemental and organochlorine residues in bald eagles from Adak, Alaska. J Wildl. Dis. 38:511-517.

Wayland, M., and T. Bollinger.  1999.  Lead exposure and poisoning in bald eagles and golden eagles in the Canadian prairie provinces.  Environ. Pollut.  104:341-350.

Wayland, M., E. Neugebauer, and T. Bollinger.  1999.  Concentrations of lead in liver, kidney, and bone of bald and golden eagles.  Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.  37:267-272.

Weseloh, D.V., K.D. Hughes, P.J. Ewins, D. Best, T. Kubiak and M.C. Shieldcastle. 2002. Herring gulls and great black-backed gulls as indicators of contaminants in bald eagles in Lake Ontario, Canada. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21:1015-1025.

White, C.M., R.J. Ritchie, and B.A. Cooper. 1993. Density and production of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Pac. Seabird Group Bull. 20:59-60.

Wiemeyer, S.N., B.M. Mulhern, F.J. Ligas, R.J. Hensel, J.E. Mathisen, F.C, Robards, and S. Postupalsky. 1972. Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mercury in bald eagle eggs and changes in shell thickness 1969 and 1970. Pestic. Monit. J. 6:50-55.

Wiemeyer, S.N., T.G. Lamont, C.M. Bunck, C.R. Sindelar, F.J. Gramlich, J.D. Fraser, and M.A. Byrd. 1984. Organochlorine pesticide, polychlorobiphenyl, and mercury residues in bald eagle eggs1969-79and their relationships to shell thinning and reproduction. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 13:529-549.

Wiemeyer, S.N., R.W. Frenzel, R.G. Anthony, B.R. McClelland, and R.L. Knight. 1989. Environmental contaminants in blood of western bald eagles. J. Raptor Res. 23:140-146.

Wiemeyer, S.N., C.M. Bunck, and C.J. Stafford. 1993. Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs1980-84and further interpretations of relationships to productivity and shell thickness. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 24:213-227.

Wood, P.B., J.H. White, A. Steffer, J.M. Wood, C.F. Facemire, and H.F. Percival. 1996. Mercury concentrations in tissues of Florida bald eagles. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:178-185.

Return to Introduction--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES